Cynthia Ozick’s forte is short fiction, especially the novella; two of her novels, The Cannibal Galaxy and The Puttermesser Papers, were in fact developed from shorter pieces. Many of her stories have been collected in volumes such as The Pagan Rabbi, and Other Stories (1971) and The Shawl (1989). Although her literary reputation depends primarily on her fiction, Ozick has also published dozens of essays, largely dealing with the same major theme found in her fiction—that of Jewish identity. Both her essays and her short stories have appeared in such periodicals as The New Yorker, Harper’s, Partisan Review, and Salmagundi. Her essays have been collected in a number of volumes, including Art and Ardor (1983), What Henry James Knew, and Other Essays on Writers (1993), Portrait of the Artist as a Bad Character, and Other Essays on Writing (1996), and Quarrel and Quandary: Essays (2000). Her poetry, which is also accomplished, has appeared in such publications as Commentary, The Literary Review, and Epoch. Her one play, Blue Light (based on Ozick’s highly acclaimed short story “The Shawl”), had a staged reading in 1993 and a full production in 1994.