Places Discussed

(Critical Guide to Settings and Places in Literature)


*Johannesburg. South Africa’s biggest and most advanced city and center of the country’s prosperous gold mining industry. During the period in which the novel is set, Johannesburg, like the rest of South Africa, is governed by increasingly rigid racially discriminatory laws and customs, all of which favor the country’s white minority. Nevertheless, black Africans flock to the city and its mines from impoverished rural areas to find wage employment and other opportunity. However, even in the great city, jobs are hard to find.

The novel focuses on the quest of Stephen Kumalo, an educated Zulu man ordained as an Anglican priest, to find his son in Johannesburg. After he reaches the city, he discovers his sister working as a prostitute and selling bootleg liquor, and his brother, who has become a corrupt political activist. Meanwhile, he observes the downtrodden condition of the city’s African residents and the extreme racial inequalities in economic and political conditions. He yearns to be back in his own village, back to the innocence and the simple way of life.

Paton uses the modern city to accentuate Kumalo’s naïve expectations of city life. As Kumalo explores Johannesburg, he sees the worst of humanity: extreme poverty, prostitution, crime, filth, destitution, and deprivation. The city is the worst place he can imagine. However, even within this great center of racism and distrust, he encounters kindness and humanity—mostly from fellow African and white clergymen, who comfort and support him when his religious faith and optimism begin to leave him. Through their small kindness, Paton redeems the city.

Parkwold Ridge

Parkwold Ridge. Johannesburg home of Arthur Jarvis, a tireless activist for African rights who has been murdered by Kumalo’s son, Absalom, during a burglary attempt on the house. After Jarvis’s death, his father, James Jarvis, for the first time begins to understand his son’s dedication to African rights through his exploration of his son’s study, which is filled with books and his writings on the need for African reforms. Gradually, father gets to know his son better in death than he ever did in life. He learns that his son loved the land of South Africa itself. Although he fought almost alone in his cause and his principles, he was passionate about the sufferings and disenfranchisement of the majority of his country’s peoples. It is within his home that his life’s work on African reforms exists.


Ndotsheni (en-doh-TSHAY-nee). Arid and impoverished Zulu village in South Africa’s Natal Province in which Stephen Kumalo and his wife live in a simple home. Kumalo’s son, sister, and brother have all fled the village for the big city in search of better opportunities, and Kumalo, in turn, finally leaves the village to search for them. Only after seeing Johannesburg does he fully appreciate the simple and truthful ways of his home. The novel’s descriptions of Ndotsheni underscore the jarring differences of Johannesburg. Kumalo’s faith in humanity is restored after he returns home and sees the changes brought by James Jarvis’s material contributions to Ndotsheni’s welfare and agricultural development: daily milk supplies for children, a new dam, and other improvements.

High Place

High Place. Prosperous farm owned by James Jarvis, the father of Absalom’s murder victim. Although Jarvis’s farm is near Ndotsheni, Jarvis and Kumalo never cross each other’s path until they become aware of each other through their shared tragedy. Indeed, Jarvis has always isolated himself from the lives of his native African neighbors, and his interest in their welfare is minimal until after he meets Kumalo. The aptly named High Place is where James Jarvis isolates himself from Africans.

The time and energy Jarvis devotes to his farm also prevents him from understanding his son in his true light until after his son is dead. In honor of his son and moved by his growing understanding of the desperate economic problems of his African neighbors, Jarvis draws on the resources of his farm to make substantial contributions to the agricultural development of Ndotsheni.

Historical Context

(Novels for Students)

Housing Conditions in Johannesburg, SA Published by Gale Cengage

Post-World War II
Though World War II had been over for several years, the war was still in the minds of people all...

(The entire section is 781 words.)


(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Cry, the Beloved Country is set in the rural village of Ndotsheni, home of Stephen Kumalo, and in the city of Johannesburg. The...

(The entire section is 77 words.)

Literary Style

(Novels for Students)

Point of View
Paton tells his story as if from a dream. The opening, "There is," implies the story is happening right...

(The entire section is 910 words.)

Literary Techniques

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Cry, the Beloved Country's style is distinctive and unique. The diction, the symbolism, the imagery fit in perfectly with the Biblical...

(The entire section is 956 words.)

Literary Qualities

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Cry, the Beloved Country's distinctive style incorporates diction and symbolism that complement the religious simplicity of the...

(The entire section is 391 words.)

Social Concerns

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Apartheid, or the system of racial segregation in South Africa, overwhelmingly forms one of the social concerns of this novel. Apartheid, as...

(The entire section is 380 words.)

Ideas for Group Discussions

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

1. What are the symbolic differences between the High Place where James Jarvis lives and the valley?

2. St. Stephen, the first...

(The entire section is 99 words.)

Compare and Contrast

(Novels for Students)

1948: Winning the national election, the National Party institutes a system of apartheid, officially segregating the black...

(The entire section is 117 words.)

Topics for Discussion

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

1. What are the symbolic differences between the High Place where James Jarvis lives and the valley?

2. St. Stephen, the first...

(The entire section is 95 words.)

Ideas for Reports and Papers

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

1. Trace the biblical names in the novelÂAbsalom, Stephen, Peter and JohnÂto their original stories and show how Paton's characters...

(The entire section is 97 words.)

Topics for Further Study

(Novels for Students)

Research the system of apartheid. Find out what the system meant legally as well as culturally and then try to find out the justifications,...

(The entire section is 191 words.)

Literary Precedents

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

As a novel of protest, Cry, the Beloved Country was strongly influenced by John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath (1939) and in several ways...

(The entire section is 246 words.)

Related Titles / Adaptations

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Paton's fictional works focus on South Africa and the injustice of apartheid. Paton exposes the social and economic evils of apartheid and...

(The entire section is 303 words.)

Bibliography and Further Reading

(Novels for Students)

Sheridan Baker, "Paton's Beloved Country and the Morality of Geography," in College English, Vol. 19,...

(The entire section is 309 words.)


(Great Characters in Literature)

Alexander, Peter F. Alan Paton: A Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. A particularly engaging, well-documented, enormous biography. Provides important background information on the genesis of the novel in chapters 12 and 13.

Brutus, Dennis. “Protest Against Apartheid.” In Protest and Conflict in African Literature, edited by Cosmo Pieterse and Donald Munro. New York: Africana, 1969. A notable and substantive critique of Cry, the Beloved Country from a black South African perspective. Argues that the novel’s simple, direct protest against apartheid is not forceful enough against the monstrosity of racism.

Callan, Edward. Alan Paton. Rev. ed. Boston: Twayne, 1982. Contains ten chapters based on Paton’s own 1981 volume of autobiography, Towards the Mountain. Provides significant general background on Paton’s life and times, and a critical evaluation of his fiction, drama, biography, and poetry, including a full chapter on Cry, the Beloved Country.

Callan, Edward. “Cry, the Beloved Country”: A Novel of South Africa. Boston: Twayne, 1991. A supplement to the 1982 study, focused on the historical and literary context. Includes an eight-chapter critical reading and interpretation of the novel.

Paton, Jonathan. “Comfort in Desolation.” In International Literature in English: Essays on the Major Writers, edited by Robert L. Ross. New York: Garland, 1991. A general discussion of Alan Paton’s work, written by the younger of his two sons. Identifies a Christian ethic that calls for comfort in desolation as the single, most significant element of Cry, the Beloved Country.

Media Adaptations

(Novels for Students)

In 1951 Alan Paton and Zoltan Korda produced a film version of Cry, the Beloved Country with...

(The entire section is 76 words.)

What Do I Read Next?

(Novels for Students)

First published in 1965, 117 Days: An Account of Confinement and Interrogation under South African Ninety-Day Detention Law, is Ruth...

(The entire section is 443 words.)

For Further Reference

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Biko, Steve. Black Consciousness in South Africa. Edited by Millard Arnold. New York: Random House, 1979. A look at the racial...

(The entire section is 97 words.)