The Crucible Connections and Further Reading
by Arthur Miller

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Media Adaptations

(Drama for Students)

  • The first film version of The Crucible was made in France in 1957. It stars Simone Signoret, Yves Montand, Mylene Demongeot, and Jean Debucourt. The film was directed by Raymond Rouleau and written by Jean-Paul Sartre.
  • No further film adaptations were made until 1996, when Miller's own screenplay of his drama was put into production by Twentieth Century Fox. Directed by Nicholas Hytner, the film stars Daniel Day-Lewis as Proctor, Winona Ryder as Abigail, and Joan Allen as Goody Proctor. In his introduction to the Penguin edition of the screenplay, Miller pointed to the advantages of film:"There was the possibility of showing the wild beauty of the newly cultivated land bordered by the wild sea, and the utter disorder and chaos of the town meetings where the people were busy condemning one another to death for loving the Evil One. Now one could show the hysteria as it grew rather than for the most part reporting it only."
  • Several versions of a sound recording of The Crucible in the Lincoln Centre for the Performing Arts, New York, Repertory Theater are available and are published by Caedmon.
  • The Crucible has also been made into an opera with music by Robert Ward and libretto by Bernard Stambler. Recordings of the New York City Opera performance have been produced by Composers Recordings and Troy Albany Records.
  • In 1995 Penguin Books produced an interactive multimedia CD-ROM which includes a searchable text of the play, hypertext annotations, video interviews, historical data, pictorial material, commentary, and a bibliography.

Bibliography and Further Reading

(Drama for Students)

All quotations in this Enotes edition were taken from the Penguin edition of the play, New York, 1981.

Ansen, David. "One Devil of a Time." In Newsweek, December 2, 1996, p. 80.

Corliss, Richard. "Going All the Way." In Time, Vol. 148, no. 25, December 2, 1996, p 81.

Douglass, James W. “Miller’s The Crucible: Which Witch Is Which?” In Renascence, vol. XV, no. 3, Spring, 1963, pp. 145–151.

Griffin, John and Griffin, Alice. “Arthur Miller Discusses The Crucible.” In Theatre Arts, vol. XXXCII, no. 10, October, 1953, pp. 33–34.

Hayes, Richard. Review of The Crucible. In Commonweal, Vol. LVII, no. 20, February 20, 1953, p. 498.

Hewes, Henry. “Arthur Miller and How He Went to the Devil.” In The Saturday Review, New York, vol. XXXVI, no. 5, January 31, 1953, pp. 24–26.

Hill, Philip G. “The Crucible: A Structural View.” In Modern Drama, vol. 10, no. 3, December, 1967, pp. 312–317.

Hope-Wallace, Philip. Review of The Crucible. In Time & Tide, vol. 35, no. 47, November 20, 1954, p. 1544.

Huftel, Sheila. Arthur Miller: The Burning Glass. The Citadel Press, 1965.

Introduction to Arthur Miller’s Collected Plays. The Viking Press, 1957, pp. 3–55.

Interview with Arthur Miller. In Detroit News, October 26, 1996, p. 1C.

“Journey to The Crucible.” In The New York Times, February 8, 1953, section 10, p. 3.

Martin, Robert A. "Arthur Miller's The Crucible: Background and Sources.'' In Modern Drama, September, 1977, pp 279-92.

Miller, Arthur. An interview with Matthew C. Roudane. In Michigan Quarterly Review, Summer, 1985.

Nathan, George Jean. "Henrik Miller." In Theatre Arts, Vol. XXXVII, no. 4, April, 1953, pp. 24-26.

Popkin, Henry. "Arthur Miller's The Crucible." In College English, Vol. 26, no. 2, November, 1964, pp. 139-46.

Raphael, D. D. The Paradox of Tragedy: The Mahlon Powell Lectures, 1959. Indiana University Press, 1960, pp. 90–111.

Warshow, Robert. The Immediate Experience. Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1962, pp. 189–203.

Welland, Dennis. Arthur Miller. Oliver & Boyd Ltd., 1961.

Further Reading
Budick, E. Miller. "History and Other Specters in The Crucible." In Arthur Miller, edited by Harold Bloom. Chelsea House (New York), 1987. Budick discusses the role of John Proctor and the questions of personal morality and integrity.

Herron, Ima Honaker. The Small Town in American Drama. Southern Methodist University Press (Dallas), 1969. Herron discusses different portrayals of American small town life, focusing on The Crucible in her chapter on...

(The entire section is 1,088 words.)