Themes and Meanings

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

The overall theme of the poem concerns the complacency of Americans, corruption within national politics, the inanity of television, and blatant injustices of the criminal justice system, especially relating to racial issues and African American activists. The poet also questions his inability to be an agent of social transformation. Although the principal satire is directed toward certain figures of popular culture and politics, the poet concludes with an ironic note concerning his own reaction to the unresolved dilemmas of popular culture and social justice. The mockery is based on the satirical treatment of personalities from the political arena, television, and the commercial world of Hollywood. Satire is achieved through exaggeration and ridicule.

The indictment of American culture of the late 1960’s includes the mockery of Nixon and Agnew; the White House is a symbol of deception and trickery. However, political corruption is not the only form of deception: Corruption in the form of false advertising can be found in the marketing devices of television commercials, as in the image “selling suntan lotion with foul breath.” The central absurdities of television are found in the methods of selling products. The satire of popular culture mocks not only white images but also the pretensions of black personalities such as O. J. Simpson. The critique of Simpson directs the poem toward racial themes such as the upward mobility of black athletes and...

(The entire section is 498 words.)