(Critical Survey of Literature for Students)
The Comedy of Errors

According to the laws of the lands of Ephesus and Syracuse, it is forbidden for a native of one land to journey to the other; the penalty for the crime is execution or the ransom of a thousand marks. Aegeon, a merchant of Syracuse who recently traveled to Ephesus, is to be put to death because he cannot raise the thousand marks. When Solinus, duke of Ephesus, hears Aegeon’s story, he gives the merchant one more day to raise the money.

It is a sad and strange tale Aegeon tells. Many years earlier, he journeyed to Epidamnum. Shortly after his wife joined him there she delivered identical twin boys. Strangely enough, at the same time and in the same house, another woman bore identical twin boys. Because that woman and her husband were so poor that they could not provide for their children, they gave them to Aegeon and his wife Aemilia, to be attendants to their two sons. On the way home to Syracuse, Aegeon and his family were shipwrecked. Aemilia and the two children with her were rescued by one ship, Aegeon and the other two by a different ship, and Aegeon did not see his wife and those two children again. When he reached eighteen years of age, Antipholus, the son reared by his father in Syracuse, grows eager to find his brother, so he and his attendant set out to find their twins. Aegeon comes to Ephesus to seek them.

Unknown to Aegeon, Antipholus and his attendant, Dromio, are just arrived in Ephesus. There a merchant of the city warns them to say that they come from somewhere other than Syracuse, lest they suffer the penalty already meted out to Aegeon. Antipholus, having sent Dromio to find lodging for them, is utterly bewildered when the servant returns and says that Antipholus’s wife waits dinner for him. What happens is that the Dromio who returns to Antipholus is Dromio of Ephesus, servant and attendant to Antipholus of Ephesus. Antipholus of Syracuse gives his Dromio money to pay for lodging, and when he hears a tale of a wife about whom he knows nothing he thinks his servant tricked him and asks for the return of the money. Dromio of Ephesus was given no money, however, and when he professes no knowledge of the sum, Antipholus of Syracuse beats him soundly for dishonesty. Antipholus of Syracuse later hears that his money was delivered to the inn.

A short time later, the wife and sister-in-law of Antipholus of Ephesus meet Antipholus of Syracuse and, after berating him for refusing to come home to dinner, accuses him of unfaithfulness with another woman. Not understanding a word of what Adriana says, Antipholus of Syracuse goes to dinner in her home, where Dromio is assigned by her to guard the gate and allow no one to enter. Thus it is that Antipholus of Ephesus arrives at his home with his Dromio and is refused admittance. So incensed is he that he leaves his house and goes to an inn. There he dines with a courtesan and gives her the gifts he intended for...

(The entire section is 1186 words.)