What are comparable computer systems to short term and working memory?
Computer architecture contains elements that can be compared to short term and working memory.
The Central Processing Unit or CPU or most computers consists of a small amount of working memory (either a single accumulator or multiple registers). The computer takes instructions (from an instruction set, usually consisting of some 100 odd possible instructions) from an instruction stack which consist of fetching data into registers, storing data from registers, or performing simple operations on registers.
What we normally refer to as "computer memory" or memory chips are forms of short term memory (as opposed to disk drives and flash drives, that are long term or non-volatile memory).