Themes and Meanings

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

While in Mexico in September, 1931, Crane went with an archaeologist on a five-day trip to an Aztec village called Tepoztlan. By accident, Crane and the archaeologist arrived during the yearly festival honoring Tepozteco, the Aztec god of pulque, a native alcoholic beverage. Crane drank with village leaders and was encouraged to participate in the festival, including being invited to beat an ancient drum in a ceremony at dawn. In his letters, Crane expressed pleasure at joining uninhibitedly in the festival and winning the goodwill of the villagers. It was apparently after this experience that he wrote “The Circumstance.”

Xochipilli was associated with pleasure—feasting, dancing, games, and frivolity—as well as with love. His mate was Xochiquetzalli, goddess of domestic labor and the harvest. It is easy to see why Crane, who led a short and reckless life, would find this Native American Dionysus appealing among the grim gods of the Aztec pantheon. Compared to the human sacrifices in other Aztec rituals, sacrifices to Xochipilli were relatively humane: The Aztecs used obsidian knives to draw blood from earlobes. The blood was then touched to plants to ensure their continuing fertility. Xochipilli, however, appears not to have been completely benign. Small doves were also sacrificed. He is frequently portrayed carrying a staff on which a human heart is impaled. Both the joyous and the bloody aspects of Xochipilli seem to have suited Crane’s mood....

(The entire section is 512 words.)