Sources for Further Study
Donovan, Frank. Dickens and Youth. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1968. A discussion of Dickens’ extensive use of children in his novels. A Christmas Carol is considered in detail, in two ways. Scrooge’s unhappy childhood is considered as the major cause for his present loneliness and misanthropy. The children of Bob Cratchit, especially Tiny Tim, are examined as examples of innocents who are happy even when their circumstances are difficult.
Epstein, Norrie. The Friendly Dickens: Being a Good-Natured Guide to the Art and Adventures of the Man Who Invented Scrooge. New York: Penguin, 2001. A lighthearted and enthusiastic biography of Dickens that includes critical summaries of sixteen of his novels, with illustrations and references to popular culture that elucidate Dickens’s work and demonstrate his influence.
Gissing, George. Charles Dickens: A Critical Study. 1898. Boston: Adamant Media, 2001. A biography and critical analysis written only thirty years after Dickens’s death by a prolific Victorian novelist who shared Dickens’s concern for exposing social problems.
Kaplan, Fred. Dickens: A Biography. New York: William Morrow, 1988. A comprehensive biography of the author, with more than 500 pages of text and more than 100 illustrations. The focus is on Dickens’ psychological makeup, and how it affected his written works.
Newey, Vincent. The Scriptures of Charles Dickens: Novels of Ideology, Novels of the Self. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2004. An examination of Dickens’s view of humankind’s options for living in a world of flux, including a chapter exploring “A Christmas Carol’s” view of conversion.
Pool, Daniel. What Jane Austen Ate and Charles Dickens Knew: From Fox Hunting to Whist—The Facts of Daily Life in Nineteenth Century England. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. An engaging look at social customs and everyday objects from the period in which Dickens’s novels are set.
Prickett, Stephen. Victorian Fantasy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979. A study of fantasy writings in Victorian England. Chapter 2, “Christmas at Scrooge’s,” discusses the use of fantasy elements in A Christmas Carol and Dickens’ other Christmas stories.
Slater, Michael, ed. Dickens 1970. Briarcliff Manor, N.Y.: Stein & Day, 1970. An anthology of essays on Dickens’ works, on the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of his death. Particularly of interest is Angus Wilson’s article “Dickens on Children and Childhood,” which focuses on Tiny Tim as a symbol of innocence, hope, and faith.
Stone, Harry. Dickens and the Invisible World: Fairy Tales, Fantasy, and Novel-Making. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979. A treatment of Dickens’ use of fantasy elements in his literary works. The fifth chapter focuses on five short works, including A Christmas Carol. The emphasis is on the emotions of the characters as reflected in their supernatural experiences.
Bibliography and Further Reading
Cecil, David. "Charles Dickens," in Early Victorian Novelists: Essays in Revaluation. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1935, pp. 37-74.
Chesterton, G. K. "'Great Expectations,'" in Appreciations and Criticisms of the Works of Charles Dickens. E. P. Dutton and Co., 1911, pp. 197-206.
———. Charles Dickens: the Last of the Great Men. The Press of the Readers Club, 1942, p. 79.
Pool, Daniel. Dickens' Fur Coat and Charlotte's Unanswered Letters: The Rows and Romances of England's Great Victorian Novelists. HarperCollins Publishers, 1997, p. 178.
Potter, Dale H. The Thames Embankment: Environment, Technology, and Society in Victorian London. University of Akron Press, 1998.
Symons, Julian. Charles Dickens. Arthur Barker Ltd., London, 1951.
Hardy, Barbara. "The Change of Heart in Dickens' Novels," in Victorian Studies, Vol. V, 1961-62, pp. 49-67. Examines the recurring theme of change in Dickens' works.
Kaplan, Fred. Dickens: A Biography . The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988. Among the many biographies of the author available, this is...
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