Joy Parr (essay date 1980)
SOURCE: Parr, Joy. “British Working Children,” “The Promised Land.” In Labouring Children: British Immigrant Apprentices to Canada, 1869-1924, pp. 14-26, 45-61. London: Croom Helm, 1980.
[In the following excerpt, Parr examines the working conditions in late nineteenth-century Britain that led poor parents to send their children to Canada as agricultural apprentices. Parr also discusses the conditions encountered by the children when they arrived in Canada.]
England does not know what childhood is.1
There were visitors who came away from Salford, East London and East Glasgow eighty years ago claiming...
(The entire section is 11779 words.)