During the 1960’s and 1970’s, when the United States was experiencing profound sociopolitical changes, Chicanos experienced a rebirth in culture and the arts. Chicanos, long exploited and awaiting their turn for recognition and justice, began to create a proliferation of artistic and literary works. Chicanos began their own presses, journals, art, theater, and literature. Philip D. Ortego y Gasca first labeled this burst of creativity as the Chicano Renaissance. Ortego’s pronouncement came in conjunction with the publication of Tomás Rivera’s . . . y no se lo tragó la tierra-and the Earth Did Not Part (1971). Conferences held in Denver in 1969 and in 1970, which led to written goals for the creation of the field of Chicano studies, also may be used as markers of the beginning of the Chicano Renaissance.
Annual national art and literary festivals were created. These festivals were modeled after Aztec festivals and reestablished tradition. They upheld a new consciousness that went beyond the aesthetic to the political. Poetry, murals, sculpture, and prose works flowered. New Chicano student organizations and journals also came into being. Organizations created newsletters, activist newspapers, and publications, including El Chicano, Con Safos, El Gallo, El Grito, and El Grito del Norte. Anthologies of Chicano literature include El Espejo(1969) and La Cosecha (1977).
(The entire section is 637 words.)