Charles Lamb Biography


(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Charles Lamb was born in Crown Office Row, Inner Temple, London, on February 10, 1775. His father, described under the name Lovel in Lamb’s essay “The Old Benchers of the Inner Temple,” was an assistant and servant to Samuel Salt, a member of Parliament. Through the generosity of Salt, Lamb in 1782 was allowed to enroll in the celebrated charity school, Christ’s Hospital, where he continued for seven years. Among his fellows was Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

In 1789 he left school and, in 1791, became a clerk in the South Sea House. In 1792 he went to work for the East India Company, where, except for a six-week period (1795-1796), when he was confined in an asylum, he was employed for thirty-three years, the span of time coinciding with his principal literary activities.

In 1796 his sister Mary, ten years his senior, who shared with him a hereditary mental disorder marked by recurrent mania, stabbed their mother to death. The responsibility of caring for Mary devolved upon Charles, who lived the rest of his life with her in what he called “a kind of double singleness.” They were devoted to each other, and she was both a good companion and a valuable literary collaborator during her long periods of lucidity. Her recurring intervals of instability, however, provided a source of anxiety for the rest of Lamb’s life. Mary appears as Bridget Elia in Lamb’s essays.

To Lamb’s close friendship with Coleridge is to be credited his emergence as a poet, and in Coleridge’s Poems on Various Subjects (1796) were included four sonnets by Lamb. Through Coleridge, Lamb established friendships with Dorothy and William Wordsworth, with Robert Southey, and with Charles Lloyd. In 1798 Lamb and Lloyd published a volume titled Blank Verse, assembling some of Lamb’s best lyrics, among them “The Old Familiar Faces.” The same year saw the publication of his prose romance A Tale of Rosamund Gray and Old Blind Margaret, a melodramatic and sentimental story with sources in Lamb’s family misfortunes. The income from his clerkship at the East India House, though assured, was small, and Lamb augmented his means by writing humorous sketches for newspapers. Aspiring to less transitory fame, he composed and offered to the actor John Kemble a tragedy, John Woodvil, which drew heavily on his favorites, the Elizabethans. Undeterred by indifference to this effort, he wrote a farce, Mr. H.: Or,...

(The entire section is 1001 words.)


(British and Irish Poetry, Revised Edition)

Charles Lamb was born in London to poor parents. His father was a servant and clerk to Samuel Salt, Esquire, of the Inner Temple, and his mother was Salt’s housekeeper. Like his older brother John, Lamb went to Christ’s Hospital School when he was seven, sponsored by Salt. There he met Coleridge, who was to become his friend for life. Because of a stutter, Lamb did not follow Coleridge to Cambridge on scholarship. Instead, at the age of fourteen, with his education complete, he went to work. His first two apprenticeships came to nothing. In 1792, however, he took a position as an accountant in the East India House, where he remained until his retirement in 1825. Lamb often complained about his position at the East India House, claiming that the work was boring and unimaginative. In fact, the routine about which he complained was a setting and stabilizing influence that his temperament needed and his art exploited. Lamb received an adequate income for a modicum of work, and though not rich, he was comfortable by the standards of his day. Two other events in his life, however, diminished the happiness offered by this financial security.

Among celebrated bachelors, Lamb is one of the most famous. His unmarried status, however, was not of his own choosing. Sometime around 1792, he fell in love with Ann Simmons, a Hertfordshire neighbor of his maternal grandmother, Mrs. Field. Mrs. Field is said to have discouraged the relationship by pointing out that there was insanity in the Lamb family, and Ann married a London pawnbroker and silversmith named Barton. Lamb’s poetry, letters, and essays testify to the sorrow...

(The entire section is 664 words.)