Dickens is generally considered to be the preeminent novelist of Victorian England. His novels include Oliver Twist (1838), A Christmas Carol (1843), Bleak House (1852-1853), and A Tale of Two Cities (1859). His novel Oliver Twist, about an orphaned boy who runs away from a workhouse and falls under the influence of an unscupulous Jewish thief named Fagin, was the subject of a censorship effort in New York in 1949. The case of Rosenberg v. Board of Education of the City of New York involved a complaint made in the New York courts against the reading and study of Oliver Twist—as well as William Shakespeare’s play, The Merchant of Venice—in New York City secondary schools. Charging that both works contained offensive portrayals of Jews, the complainants urged the court that the works would prompt hatred of Jews as individuals and as a race. However, the court determined that because no school officials or instructors had selected the works in order to promote anti- Semitism their censorship would be inappropriate.