Following the phenomenal success of Burney’s first novel, Evelina: Or, The History of a Young Lady’s Entrance into the World (1778), Cecilia: Or, Memoirs of an Heiress shares thematic elements with its predecessor but demonstrates a marked shift in technique and style. Burney abandons the epistolary form of her first novel, adopting a third-person, omniscient narrative. This narrative approach provides a distant perspective that allows the author to delve into more diverse personal viewpoints and to cross various social boundaries. Critics have traditionally viewed this novel as flawed compared to Burney’s earlier effort, but Cecilia was nevertheless admired by the great Samuel Johnson. Although the novel lacks the sentimental happy ending characteristic of eighteenth century fiction, thereby provoking much complaint among her readers, the novel was commercially highly successful. The novel’s literary influence was considerable. Novelist William Godwin first parodied it and then tried to emulate it in The Adventures of Caleb Williams: Or, Things as They Are (1794); Jane Austen’s classic novel Pride and Prejudice (1813) is also indebted to Cecilia.
The novel combines two major themes, those of romantic love and the destructive power of the love of money. These themes are interwoven in the major plot line and in the numerous subplots involving characters who come in and out of Cecilia’s life. The tension of the novel derives from Cecilia’s attempt to reconcile two impulses in her life: the desires to marry the man she loves and to have independence and meaningful work. The great irony of the novel is that to have one, she must surrender the other.
When Cecilia arrives in London, her country upbringing has prepared her to see through the sham of society, and she is aware that her well-attended reception springs more out of interest in her wealth than out of genuine regard for her personally. With a too trusting nature, at first Cecilia finds the frivolous nature of the upper classes merely amusing. When the flighty Miss Larolles, for example, recalls how a friend’s fortunate illness allows her to attend a party in her place, Cecilia does not realize, as she later learns through the course of the novel, that such insensitivity can and often does lead to downright cruelty. As Cecilia gradually discovers the true nature of some of the people she trusts, Burney exposes the hypocrisy and materialism of London society in increasingly harsh terms.
Understandably, Cecilia is repeatedly disappointed by these people. Cecilia considers Mrs. Harrel an old and close friend and looks forward to living with her; however, Mrs....
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