Last Updated on May 18, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 600
Carver is generally considered the leading writer of the school of fiction called minimalism, which—as its name implies—eliminates all but the most important details. Minimalists are noted for using simple language and focusing on factual statements, implying rather than attempting to explain precisely what is going on inside their characters. The reader of a minimalist story is forced to make inferences from what the characters do and say. For example, it can be inferred that the narrator of “Cathedral” and his wife are not getting along well and might be on the verge of divorce. Indeed, the most striking thing about “Cathedral” is its simplicity of language. This type of narration from the viewpoint of a simple, uneducated man creates an impression of truthfulness, as the narrator seems too naïve to be dishonest or evasive.
Characteristically, Carver neither names nor describes the two principal characters and does not even reveal where the story takes place. Like other minimalist fiction writers, such as Ann Beattie, Carver deletes every word that he possibly can and even deletes punctuation marks whenever possible. The effect of minimalism is to engage one’s imagination, forcing the reader to make guesses and assumptions and thereby participate in the creative process.
In “Cathedral,” as in many of his other stories, Carver uses a narrator who is a faux naïf, like the narrators of Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) and J. D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye (1951). Such “naïve” narrators supposedly do not understand the full import of what they are telling. This narrative device enhances verisimilitude, characterizes and creates sympathy for the narrator, and provides a basis for humor. The typical point of stories involving faux naïf narrator-protagonists is that they experience events that teach them something about life or about themselves, thereby making them less naïve. In identifying with the narrator, the reader vicariously experiences the learning event and feels changed by the story.
Minimalist short-story writers often write about seemingly trivial domestic incidents and tend to avoid what James Joyce called “epiphanies”—sudden intuitive perceptions of a higher spiritual meaning to life. Minimalists have been attacked as having nothing to say because they do not offer solutions to the existential problems they dramatize in their stories. In a typical Carver story, little changes; his endings might be called “mini-epiphanies.” This is characteristic of minimalists, who usually display a nihilistic outlook and do not believe there are answers to life’s larger questions. Carver’s “downbeat” endings tend to leave the reader depressed or perplexed—and this is the intention. Carver tried to capture the feelings of alienation and frustration that are so much a part of modern life.
Carver has been credited with single-handedly reviving interest in the short story, a genre that had been perfected by American authors beginning with Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan Poe but had been rapidly declining in popularity and social influence with the advent of television after World War II. Some readers dislike Carver’s stories because they seem depressing or pointless. Others appreciate them because they are so truthful. He writes about working-class folk who lead lives of quiet desperation, are chronically in debt, and often overdrink. He tells bitter truths but has an indestructible sense of humor that always shines through. It is impossible to appreciate “Cathedral” without being aware of its offbeat humor, such as in the narrator’s offer to take the blind man bowling and his wife’s reaction to that bizarre suggestion. The subtle humor spicing this poignant story is typically Carveresque.
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Raymond Carver’s decision to dedicate Cathedral to the memory of John Gardner, from whom Carver took a writing course in the fall of 1958, may seem rather odd to many readers. Gardner’s expansive stories and novels sprawl across page after page as the author seeks to affirm the eternal verities of moral fiction. Carver’s fiction is written in an entirely different mode: concise, elliptical, and tightly controlled, suggestive rather than (as with Gardner) exhaustive. This style, which several reviewers have inaccurately termed minimalist, is as clipped as Ernest Hemingway’s and as incisive and emotionally detached as Joan Didion’s. Nevertheless, Carver and Gardner do resemble each other in one most important way: their shared commitment to “values and craft,” as Carver phrases it in his foreword to Gardner’s On Becoming a Novelist (1982).
Since the publication of his first collection of stories in 1977, Will You Please Be Quiet, Please?, Carver’s distinctive prose style and commitment to the craft of fiction have provoked widely divergent critical judgments. Although his work has been richly and deservedly praised—his first collection was nominated for a National Book Award, while his second, What We Talk About When We Talk About Love (1981), helped Carver win the prestigious Mildred and Harold Straus Living Award—the two books (comprising thirty-nine at times very short stories) have led a few reviewers to question whether Carver’s style and “terrifying vision of ordinary human life in our country” (as Leonard Michaels once described it) has hardened into fashionable despair and mere literary affectation. The criticism is understandable but by no means merited, especially now that Cathedral has appeared, a work which, even as it recalls the earlier stories, marks a distinct advance in both the author’s vision and his narrative aesthetic.
Before discussing this advance, it is necessary to establish the chief object of Carver’s concern, the lives of his characters. These characters are not, as one reviewer has complained, “morbid caricatures”; rather, they are only as monotonous and monochromatic as the featureless, middle-class or lower-middle-class America in which they live—a world, incidentally, that Carver has progressively stripped of particular geographical details in order to focus better and more intensively on the internal lives of his characters. Carver does for his segment of the contemporary American population what Didion has done for her more affluent characters; he has portrayed a world in which the individual has been stripped of all the usual forms of support—family, religion, politics, economic security, shared culture, and so forth. Radically cut off from what once served to preserve and sustain human life, his characters necessarily fall back on themselves and their own meager resources. One dreams of living “in an old house surrounded by a wall”; another believes that she and her husband will thrive within the self-contained world of their marriage, but then the husband-narrator unintentionally makes clear how impoverished their lives actually are: “Some nights we went to a movie. Other nights we just stayed in and watched TV. Sometimes Fran baked things for me and we’d eat whatever it was all in a sitting.” Here is a quiet desperation such as Henry David Thoreau never could have imagined. For these people, transcendence seems less a problem than an impossibility. The simple, seemingly trivial ways in which their uncertainty manifests itself—what, for example, to bring one’s nominal friends when invited to dinner at their house—suggests a deeper dis-ease. They begin to discover the drab truth of certain clichés—time is what passes you by, dreams “are what you wake up from.” What they wake to is a dim perception of the fragility of their lives and of bad situations getting slowly but inexorably worse.
They do not concern themselves with the problems of radioactive waste, the greenhouse effect, or nuclear war; their disasters are not environmental or international but intensely personal. “Without looking, the birthday boy stepped off the curb at an intersection and was immediately knocked down by a car.” In another story, J. P. gets everything he wants: marriage, good job, children, house. Then, slowly and inexplicably, he begins drinking, and his life falls apart. These characters come to realize that their seemingly safe domestic lives have transmogrified into minor, even commonplace tragedies in which, as helpless victims, they can at best hope to endure rather than, as William Faulkner had it, prevail. As Carver explained in an interview, “They’d like to set things right, but they can’t” and so are left just trying to “do the best they can.” Often, the best is not much. In the aptly titled story “Preservation,” husband and wife spend a night discussing what he can do now that he has lost his job as a roofer, “but they couldn’t think of anything,” and so the husband spends the next three months lying on the living-room sofa. The narrator of “Where I’m Calling From” (the “where” refers to a rehabilitation house for alcoholics) adopts a similarly fatalistic view. “I’ve been here once before. What’s to say? I’m back. . . . Part of me wanted help. But there was another part.” In turning to alcohol, he is turning away from the pain of a failed marriage and eventually from all potentially painful human relationships. As he says in explaining why he will not call his girlfriend, also an alcoholic, who has recently learned she has vaginal cancer: “I hope she’s okay. But if she has something wrong with her, I don’t want to know about it.” Given such an attitude, the reader usually finds it easier to understand and sympathize with Carver’s isolates than to like them.
In rehabilitation houses, furnished rooms, and rented apartments, loneliness stalks these characters, often driving them to acts that only further separate them from others. Wes, for example (in “Chef’s House”), rents a house from his friend Chef and, like Carver, makes an apparently successful recovery from alcoholism. In Wes’s mind, however, the recovery is mysteriously linked to the rented house, a home of sorts, and when Chef says he needs the house for his daughter, the recovery abruptly ends, leaving Wes and his wife (who left her lover for Wes’s sake) homeless and alone. The story’s closing lines effectively summarize just how transient their lives are and how precarious is their hold on everyday existence: “Wes got up and pulled the drapes and the ocean was gone just like that. I went in to start supper. We still had some fish in the icebox. There wasn’t much else. We’ll clean it up tonight, I thought, and that will be the end of it.” As the narrator of “The Bridle” says about four different yet similar characters, “These people look whipped.” In Carver’s fiction, they often do.
The vision is bleak but convincing, the author relentless in his depiction of the darker side of ordinary American life yet compassionate as well, detached but never condescending. Something of a Samuel Beckett of the blue-collar classes, Carver has not until recently mixed his compassion for his characters with an equal measure of hope. It is precisely here that Cathedral represents a distinct advance over the previous works, a movement toward what Carver has called a more “generous” fiction that is particularly evident in the collection’s two finest pieces, “A Small, Good Thing” and “Cathedral.” A much shorter and much less “generous” version of “A Small, Good Thing” appeared under the title “The Bath” in Carver’s second collection. In that earlier version, a mother orders a birthday cake for her son, Scotty, who, on the morning of his birthday, is struck by a car and falls into a coma. While in the hospital, the baker (without identifying himself and apparently without any knowledge of the accident) calls the house several times, asking the parents (whichever one happens to be home at the time) if they have forgotten Scotty—meaning the cake, though they immediately—and guiltily—think of their son. Reading the story is a painful experience, especially for the reader who also may be a parent. The longer version, of which “The Bath,” slightly but significantly revised, forms the first half, is even more emotionally trying. In the second half of “A Small, Good Thing,” Scotty dies, and his stunned parents return home to face both the loss of their only child and the sudden emptiness of their own lives as well. The wife says, “He’s gone and now we’ll have to get used to that.” Before they can even begin to adjust, the phone rings; the wife realizes the caller’s identity and demands that her husband drive her to the bakery. The confrontation very nearly turns violent, but then a transformation occurs; the anger turns into grief, the grief into a special kind of understanding. Realizing what he has done, the baker asks for forgiveness and explains that while he is not evil, as the woman has claimed, neither is he entirely human. Lonely and childless, he has somehow lost his humanity, and it is the sense of loss that binds these three people together. “You have to eat and keep going,” the baker tells the grieving parents, offering them the rolls and bread he has made. “Eating is a small, good thing in a time like this.” In this moment of communion (no other word will do to describe it), the baker regains what he has lost—as do the parents—becoming at once father and son to the childless couple, who, as the story ends, continue to sit at his table and “did not think of leaving.”
“Cathedral”—the first to have been written of the twelve stories in the collection—is arguably the best, a tour de force in which Carver seems determined to prove to himself as well as to the reader that in the contemporary wasteland, redemption is still possible, as it clearly was not in most of the author’s earlier fictions. As with all of his stories, the plot of “Cathedral” is simple and straightforward. A blind man named Robert visits the narrator and his wife, who worked for Robert some ten years before. The real story occurs not in the events of Robert’s visit but in the narrator’s changing attitude toward his unwanted guest. The blind man’s presence makes the narrator feel self-conscious (as if he, not Robert, were the stranger), even jealous and resentful. Robert, he thinks, may actually know more about his wife than he does. (The wife and the blind man have exchanged tape-recorded “letters” throughout the ten years.) At first, the narrator mentally derides Robert as “spiffy” and “creepy,” but gradually he begins to observe the blind man more closely. His scrutiny leads first to understanding and then, as in “A Small, Good Thing,” to his sympathetic identification with his guest. Whereas earlier he found Robert’s presence “disconcerting,” now the narrator is glad to have his company and concerned that Robert may not be able to visualize a cathedral from his description of it on the television screen. The problem stems less from Robert’s physiological blindness than from the narrator’s spiritual blindness—his self-centeredness and lack of faith in anything or anyone, including himself. He cannot describe a cathedral adequately, even to himself, because cathedrals do not really mean anything to him; nothing does. In the story’s remarkable conclusion, Robert asks the narrator to draw a cathedral while the blind man holds his hand. The narrator begins with a simple box that reminds him of his own house and then adds a roof, spires, arches, windows, flying buttresses: “I couldn’t stop.” Closing his eyes, he continues to draw, and as he draws he loses all of the anxiety, selfishness, and feeling of confinement that characterized him earlier. For the first time, he is free to understand, as the blind man has apparently understood all of his life despite the loss of his sight and of his wife, that “It’s really something”—the mystical “it” being purposely left undefined.
The blind man teaches the sighted narrator to see their shared world and to desire to live in it. The seeing in “Cathedral” corresponds to Carver’s purpose in writing these stories. His characters have an urgent need to explain themselves, their lives, and more especially their failures, but, like the woman in “A Small, Good Thing” who “didn’t know how to begin” or the man in “Careful” who “didn’t know where to start,” they are unable to articulate the point of their stories—the point, really, of their lives. Carver’s purpose, however, is not to explain; it is, more humbly, to “allow certain areas of life to be understood a little better than they were before.” These “certain areas” are only superficially socioeconomic in nature; as the resemblance between his fictions and those of Beckett, Didion, Renata Adler, John Cheever, and Walker Percy suggests, Carver’s concern is not with the problems of any one class but rather with the universal condition of psychological and spiritual exhaustion that afflicts contemporary man.
In his three collections, Carver has illuminated the darkened lives of his defeated and bewildered characters; only in Cathedral, however, has he begun to affirm, as John Gardner would have said, the emotional values that enable them to go on in the face of what appear to be overwhelming odds and certain defeat. His is a stoic vision, one that is tempered, however, by the possibility—no longer so terrifyingly remote—of understanding and perhaps even love.
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The characters who people Carver's short stories, including "Cathedral," find themselves in times of diminishing expectations. In 1978, only about 11.7 percent of the United States population was considered "poor" by government standards. The rate had steadily fallen since 1960. However, in the decade beginning in 1978, poverty once again increased. Further, in the early years of the Reagan administration, high inflation, high interest rates, and high unemployment reflected the recession that slowed American economic hopes. The unemployment rate in 1982, for example, was 10.8 percent. Ironically, the wealthy became wealthier during this period, while the gap between rich and poor steadily widened.
Even more disturbing, during this period those workers who were employed often earned wages that were not sufficient to raise them out of the poverty level. These people became known as ''the working poor.’’ In 1988, 40 percent of all poor people worked without raising themselves above the poverty line. Consequently, for large numbers of Americans, the 1980s were a time of fear and trepidation: problems such as sickness, lack of transportation, or other hardship could knock an entire family into extreme economic difficulty.
Carver and his family were members of the working poor themselves. Married with two children by the time he was twenty in 1958, Carver continually found himself in poor-paying, low-status jobs. Although both he and his wife worked, their joint income barely kept the family afloat. Their problems exacerbated by Carver's alcoholism, the family twice had to declare bankruptcy and start over.
Likewise, the characters in Carver's short stories lead lives of near-panic. If they have work, the are generally unhappy with their jobs. Many critics describe Carver as a ‘‘bluecollar realist.’’ In other words, Carver's characters are often modeled after people like himself, struggling to make relationships, break through isolation, and find hope in times of despair.
In times of recession and falling expectations, stress levels rise, alcoholism increases, and marriages falter. In Carver's stories, disaster always seems to be just outside the pages of the book. His characters generally have jobs, although they are jobs that do not contribute to their emotional or intellectual well-being. The characters seem to float in existential despair through their lives, unable to identify why the American Dream seems to have passed them by. Certainly, alcohol and alcoholism play important roles in Carver's stories. Like Carver himself, his characters often use alcohol as a means of escape from the stresses of their lives. Like Carver, his characters often find that alcohol renders them inarticulate and speechless.
In addition, although Carver does not generally refer to the social class of his characters, the lives they lead suggest that they are not wealthy people. Indeed, Carver has often been referred to as a ''spokesperson'' for bluecollar, working class people. Certainly, this is the milieu in which he himself grew to adulthood. As bluecollar, working class people, Carver's characters often lack both financial and emotional resources. They are also people who often lack the resources to express their feelings. As Lorna Sage points out in a discussion of Carver's prose, ‘‘Brevity was the name of his game: the people he spoke for, the white workingclass Americans whose voices come over on the page haven't got too many words, or too much of anything else.'' They struggle with the minutia of daily life, trying to maintain their precarious hold on their lower middle class existence. Often their marriages are troubled. Certainly, in the United States of the 1980s, many marriages ended in divorce as a result of an easing of divorce laws in many states. In addition, the extra tension placed on individuals by recession and high unemployment rates also contributed to a rising divorce rate among the lower-middle class during the time Carver was writing.
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Narration and Point of View
One of the most interesting features of ''Cathedral'' is Carver's construction of the narrative point of view. The story is told by the unnamed, middle-aged, white male narrator, and the point of view is limited to him. The reader learns of the blind man's upcoming visit, the narrator's wife's previous life, and the course of the visit through the senses of the narrator. The narrator is not an articulate man; consequently, the narration is filled with gaps that the reader must fill in. In spite of the fact that the narrator controls what information the reader has, Carver provides plenty of clues to the personality of the narrator. That is, by carefully reading the story, the reader can discern things about the narrator that remain hidden even to himself. For example, although the narrator never mentions loving his wife, his jealousy is clear; he does not even want to name her first husband. In addition, it is possible to surmise that the narrator is uncomfortable with the whole notion of blindness, although he never states this directly. Finally, the use of a first-person, limited narrator allows the story to focus on the change in the narrator that occurs in the last few lines. This story is not only told by the narrator, it is also about the narrator. The change occurs almost without warning; certainly the narrator does not anticipate the epiphany that ends the story. Readers, too, are caught by surprise. Such surprise is only possible in a story where the narrative and the point of view are both tightly controlled.
In literature, an image is a device which provides a concrete, sensory description of an idea, object or character. It is also possible for an image to become symbolic in a story. In "Cathedral," the controlling image is the cathedral. The cathedral moves from the title of the collection, to the title of the story, to the flickering image on the narrator's television, to the brown paper bag on which the narrator draws a cathedral, to finally, the wide screen of the narrator's imagination. A cathedral is a human construction, but a construction designed to provide a space for communion between humans and the sacred. While Carver never goes so far as to make this connection explicitly, it seems clear that his selection of a cathedral as the controlling image at least points to some religious significance. At the very least, a cathedral is an image that invites awe in viewers and readers. At the most, the image of the cathedral suggests the transformative powers that such a structure holds.
William Harmon and C. Hugh Holman in A Handbook to Literature define epiphany as ''Literally a manifestation or showing-forth, usually of some divine being.’’ They further explain that the word ''epiphany'' was first used as a term in literary criticism by James Joyce, ''who used it to designate an event in which the essential nature of something ... was suddenly perceived. It was thus an intuitive grasp of reality achieved in a quick flash of recognition in which something, usually simple and commonplace, is seen in a new light. ...’’
In ''Cathedral'' the narrator experiences such a flash of insight in the last few lines of the story. With his eyes closed and with the blind man's hand on his own, he suddenly ''sees'' the cathedral he has been attempting to draw. What he sees, however, is far greater than the image under his hand. Rather, the cathedral opens the possibility of transformation in the narrator's life. The epiphany in the story is indeed a small one; and the narrator seems unable to articulate it well.
However, Carver's style is also spare, and lean, and the epiphany he offers is in keeping with this style. Further, one of the characteristic responses to an encounter with the sacred is speechlessness, the inability to adequately put into words the reality of the experience. Consequently, the narrator's final utterance, ‘‘It's really something,’’ while non-specific and general, points to some larger and greater intuitive leap. It is as if the narrator suddenly realizes that through contact with another person, he somehow encounters the divine.
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Technique for Carver is largely a matter of craftsmanship, of attending to a story's details of language, action, rhythm and characterization. His best stories transcend conventional symbolism while employing it. In "The Bridle," for example, a bridle represents the simple former way of life that a farmer and his family have lost. The bridle is also associated, however, with his gamble on a race horse he bought, a horse, that like its owner, never wins. The predicament of the characters allows the bridle's symbolic significance to resonate even further, suggesting that the farmer is held in harness, pulled by the reins of fate.
In addition to symbolism, Carver designs his stories to move toward moments of recognition. "Cathedral" and "A Small Good Thing" provide dramatic examples. Both stories contain recognitions at once beautiful and strange. The unexpected happens, but its occurrence is both natural and inevitable. Carver's best stories, are fictional performances, feats of skill carried off with daring and grace.
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1980s: Marijuana use, reaching a high point in the late 1970s, begins a decade long decline. Reported use among high school students in 1989 is half that reported in 1979.
1990s: Marijuana use appears to once again be on the rise, as does the cultivation of marijuana in the United States. The long term effects of marijuana use are still not known.
1980s: In the first year of the decade, Ronald Reagan is elected president. A Republican, Reagan institutes tax cuts and increases military spending.
1990s: In 1992, Bill Clinton is elected president. Clinton is a moderate Democrat interested in social reform. However, personal indiscretions lead to his impeachment.
1980s: Television use increases. It is estimated that by 1980, over 100,000,000 television receivers are in use in the United States. Approximately 82 percent of American households have at least one color television at the beginning of the decade.
1990s: Television use expands greatly. Cable stations multiply, and direct link satellite receivers are not uncommon. By 1995, 98 percent of American households have television sets. This averages to a set for every 1.2 persons in population.
1980s: Although the rampant inflation of the 1970s is brought under control, the trade deficit continues and the national debt grows quickly. Some industries come out of the recession of the previous decade, but others stagnate. Although there are tax cuts, they benefit the wealthier members of the society much more than the less wealthy. The gap between the rich and the poor grows, with an ever greater percentage of the nation's wealth being held in the hands of an ever decreasing percent of the population.
1990s: The decade of the bull market, the 1990s witness the nation's economy take an upswing, and the economy enjoys steady growth through the decade's end. The unemployment rate is at an all time low by the end of the decade. Real earning power, however, has decreased, and the gap between the rich and the poor continues to grow.
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Carver has expressed admiration for previous masters of fiction such as Tolstoy, Flaubert, and Chekhov; Hemingway, Joyce, and Durrell. He has praised contemporary storytellers such as Updike, Beattie, Mason, and Tobias Wolff. His literary precedents include these and other writers whose fiction exhibits a respect for nuances of spoken discourse, an eye for incongruous detail, and a meticulous care for design. Like Hemingway, Carver relies heavily on dialogue to carry meaning. Like Chekhov, he exhibits a finely modulated balance of sympathy and judgment for his characters. And like the Joyce of the Dubliners stories, Carver's best stories are epiphanic.
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Allen, Bruce, A review of Cathedral, The Christian Science Monitor, November 4, 1983, p. B4.
Broyard, Anatole, A review of Cathedral, The New York Times, September 5, 1983, p. 27.
Howe, Irving, A review of Cathedral, The New York Times Book Review, September 11, 1983, pp. 42-3.
Meyer, Adam, Raymond Carver, New York: Twayne Publishers, 1995, pp. 182-183.
Mullin, Bill, ‘‘A Subtle Spectacle: Television Culture in the Short Stories of Raymond Carver,’’ Critique, Vol. 39, No. 1, Winter, 1998, pp. 99-114.
Nesset, Kirk, ''Insularity and Self-Enlargement in Raymond Carver's Cathedral,’’ Essays in Literature, Volume 21, No. 1, Spring, 1994, pp. 116-29.
Nesset, Kirk, The Stories of Raymond Carver: A Critical Study, Ohio University Press, 1995, p. 71.
Powell, Jon, ''The Stories of Raymond Carver: The Menace of Perpetual Uncertainty,’’ Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. 31, No. 3, Fall, 1994, pp. 647-56.
Rubins, Josh, A review of Cathedral,The New York Review of Books, November 24, 1983, p. 40-2.
Sage, Lorna, A review of Elephant, The Observer, August 14, 1988, p. 41.
Simpson, Mona, and Lewis Buzbee, An interview with Raymond Carver, In Conversations with Raymond Carver, Marshall Bruce Gentry and William L. Stull, editors, University of Mississippi Press, 1990, pp. 31-52.
Trussler, Michael, ''The Narrowed Voice: Minimalism and Raymond Carver,’’ Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. 31, No. 1, Winter, 1994, pp. 23-37.
Barth, John, ‘‘A Few Words About Minimalism,’’ The New York Times Book Review, December 28, 1986, pp. 1-2, 25.
In this brief article, Barth offers a definition for minimalism and attempts to place it within a social and cultural context. Minimalism and "Cathedral" need to be read together, as a whole, because they ''create together what they could not have done by themselves.’’
Runyon, Randolph Paul, Reading Raymond Carver, Syracuse Unitversity Press, 1992
A good introductory critical survey of Carver's work.
Saltzman, Arthur M., Understanding Raymond Carver, University of South Carolina Press.
A chapter-length discussion of the collection, Cathedral.
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Sources for Further Study
Christian Science Monitor. November 4, 1983, p. B4.
Library Journal. CVIII, September 1, 1983, p. 1719.
Los Angeles Times Book Review. October 2, 1983, p. 3.
The New Republic. CLXXXIX, November 14, 1983, p. 38.
The New York Review of Books. XXX, November 24, 1983, p. 40.
The New York Times Book Review. LXXXVIII, September 11, 1983, p. 1.
Newsweek. CII, September 5, 1983, p. 66.
Publishers Weekly. CCXXIV, July 8, 1983, p. 58.
Saturday Review. IX, September, 1983, p. 61.
Time. CXXII, September 19, 1983, p. 95.