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Heller's antiwar message, tone towards war, and view on military incompetence in Catch-22

Summary:

Heller's Catch-22 conveys a strong antiwar message, using a satirical and absurd tone to criticize the futility and destructiveness of war. He highlights military incompetence through the irrational and self-serving behavior of military officials, portraying the bureaucracy and illogical regulations that endanger soldiers' lives and sanity.

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How does Heller convey an antiwar message in Catch-22?

Joseph Heller’s primary means of exposing the negative aspects of World War 2 is satire. He employs a combination of absurdism and realism to show that the war and the social world within it were often meaningless. At the same time, he creates an array of characters that have internal consistency, and he develops a set of plot lines. The central motif of Catch-22 is one way that he holds the novel together and highlights the absurdities. Everyone knows what this catch is, but no one can find it written in any specific set of regulations. Whenever a logical conclusion to a difficult problem seems likely, it will not be reached because there is always this catch.

The well-developed central character, Yossarian, constantly looks for ways to remove himself from flying additional bombing missions. He is consistent in his opposition to the extra missions and tries to identify and exploit the catch whenever he can. Because his arguments are well-reasoned, however, they have little effectiveness against the general absurdity in which he finds himself.

Heller’s novel is anti-war in specific ways; however, it is not a work of pacifism. As an officer whose position is bombardier, Yossarian does not oppose flying the bombing raids. He objects to the superior officers constantly raising the number of missions he is required to fly because he knows they do so in hopes of gaining personal prestige and benefits. Heller also raises objections to people benefiting financially from the war, such as Milo Minderbinder and the others in his corporation, while countless others sacrificed their lives.

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What is Heller's tone towards war in Catch-22?

Joseph Heller clearly has a point of view about war, and he demonstrates that perspective best in the names and actions of those in leadership in his novel Catch-22.

The characters in leadership all have names which reflect their particular ineptitudes and egocentricities. For example, General Scheisskopf is consumed with parades and other equally useless displays; in German, his name means "shithead." General Peckem gives the ridiculous command that all military tents must be pitched with their tents facing the Washington monument. He is obsessed with rank and pecking order (as his name implies); his name is also a loose equivalent to a male organ. The mess officer, Milo Minderbinder, is determined that capitalism (making money) will persevere despite the war--even at the expense of soldiers' lives. In contrast, the dead man in Yossarian's tent is named Mudd, which is an apt depiction of the enlisted men, according to Heller. 

Perhaps the most obvious example of Heller's view of war comes from the title and the supposedly non-existent law known as Catch-22. Winning is not the goal and everyone loses. This is, presumably, Heller's view of war. 

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What is Heller's view on war, using the subtheme of military incompetence in Catch-22?

It is clear that Joseph Heller believes war is often handled incompetently by those in charge, and he demonstrates that in Catch-22 by using satire to showcase the incompetence. 

Heller often uses the names of characters to reveal their particular ineptitudes. For example, General Scheisskopf cares for nothing more than parades and exhibitions of intricate (and useless) marching. Obviously, this is not something which is useful during a war, and it is no accident that his name means "sh**head" in German. General Peckem spends all his time worrying about what he must to do to please his superiors in order to get ahead, often at the expense of the men over whom he has command. His name implies his obsession with the pecking order (and hints at a part of the male anatomy). Colonel Korn is both a farmer and rather ridiculous and overly emotional--an apt definition of "corny."  Finally, Milo Minderbinder is a mess hall officer who is determined not to let a mere war keep him from his capitalistic pursuits (making money), even at the expense of his fellow soldiers. None of them are particularly concerned about the soldiers or about the war except for how each can be used to their own benefit.

Clearly, Heller finds those who conduct war to be self-centered and incompetent; what is even more telling about his view of war is the supposed law known as Catch-22 which ensures that everyone loses because winning is not the goal. 

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