A Case of Conscience Themes
by James Blish

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A Case of Conscience Themes

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

The social concerns, which are central to dozens, perhaps hundreds of science fiction works of the period, are actually secondary to Blish's main purpose in A Case of Conscience. Their role is merely to provide supporting evidence. What Blish is really interested in, and this was to become the theme of much of his major fiction in the years to come, was the problem of evil and, more specifically, the relationship between evil and secular knowledge. Blish was a trained scientist and a technocrat by inclination, but, over the years, he became increasingly dubious of the value of scientific research. In the Cities in Flight series technology made possible the salvation of humanity. In A Case of Conscience, however, it is very definitely a double-edged sword.

It is secular knowledge, after all, which created nuclear weapons and gave humanity the ability to destroy itself. In Blish's novel, technology is responsible for the hellish conditions of the Shelter society on Earth and it is also responsible for human presence on Lithia, a presence which will lead directly to Lithia's destruction while indirectly doing enormous damage to the Earth as well. Historically religion has had little place in science fiction; most writers have either ignored it or kept it carefully stored on the shelf reserved for such conventional pieties as motherhood and apple pie. Blish is one of the few science fiction writers to introduce it into the foreground of a work. Ruiz-Sanchez, the protagonist of A Case of Conscience, was appointed to the Lithian Commission as a biologist, but he is also a Jesuit priest and Lithia quickly becomes for him not merely a study in scientific development, but something much more basic. The Lithians, he realizes, have a moral philosophy which is virtually identical to that of Christianity and follow those moral beliefs to perfection but, paradoxically, they lack any religious belief whatsoever. Lithia, at first glance, seems Edenic, a planet lacking in original sin. Soon, however, Ruiz-Sanchez begins to develop doubts and comes to a much darker conclusion.

The Lithians are not good because they choose to be. Despite their highly developed civilization and engaging personalities, their propensity for right action appears to be written on the gene, innate. In short, Ruiz-Sanchez decides, their apparent morality is a sham and they are little more than automatons. If one lives in a universe where one cannot help seeing the supernatural as underpinning everything, as Ruiz-Sanchez does, only one conclusion is possible: Lithia is a trap, designed by Satan, to ensnare humanity. It is, to put Ruiz-Sanchez's dilemma in current terms, something very close to what fundamentalist Christianity sees as the trap of secular humanism, the belief that humanity can achieve greatness without divine aid.

Blish never allows Ruiz-Sanchez to discover...

(The entire section is 705 words.)