Armstrong, Piers. Third World Literary Fortunes: Brazilian Culture and Its International Reception.Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1999. Contrasts Brazilian writers with their Spanish American counterparts and compares Drummond’s poetic persona to such “paradigmatic antiheroes” as T. S. Eliot and Franz Kafka.
Di Antonio, Robert Edward. “The Confessional Mode as a Liberating Force in the Poetics of Carlos Drummond de Andrade.” Quaderni Ibero-Americani 8, nos. 61/62 (December/January, 1986/1987): 201-207. Considers Drummond an existentialist with a personal, often humorous vision of the absurdity of existence.
Lima, Luiz Costa. “Carlos Drummond de Andrade.” In Latin American Writers. Vol. 2. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1989. This lengthy essay discusses Drummond’s early work in the context of conflicting aspects of Brazilian Modernismo, his later work as evidence of “the corrosion principle,” and his even later work as the “postcorrosion phase,” in which memory is privileged over history.
Roncador, Sonia. “Precocious Boys: Race and Sexual Desire in the Autobiographical Poems of Carlos Drummond de Andrade.” Afro-Hispanic Review 27, no. 2 (Fall, 2008): 91-115. Roncador discusses the relationships between boys in privileged households and the black maids and other servants, using numerous poems by Drummond.
Sternberg, Ricardo da Silveira Lobo. The Unquiet Self: Self and Society in the Poetry of Carlos Drummond de Andrade. Valencia, Spain: Albatros/Hispanófila, 1986. Analyzes Drummond’s work as representing the inherent conflict in the relationship between self and others, and the tendency toward both withdrawal from and engagement with the world.
_______. “The World Within: Carlos Drummond de Andrade’s Alguma poesia.” Luso-Brazilian Review 21, no. 2 (Winter, 1984): 57-69. Focusing on Drummond’s “first phase,” from 1930 to 1945, Sternberg examines o choque social, or social shock inherent in the conflicts between individual and society, self and others, in Drummond’s poetry.
Vargas, Claret M. “A Poetics of Bafflement: Ethics and the Representation of the Other in Carlos Drummond de Andrade’s Poetry.” Neophilologus 92, no. 8 (July, 2008): 457-470. Explores the self and the Other in three poems by Drummond: “Menino Chorando na Noite,” “O Operário no Mar,” and “Jose.”