Carlo Levi Biography


(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Carlo Levi (LAY-vee), a writer who has been called both one of the most poetic and one of the most humane of twentieth century literary figures, was born on November 29, 1902, in Turin, Italy. Turin was, when Levi was young, a stronghold of nascent Italian socialism and of resistance to the spread of Fascism. His childhood was uneventful and fairly conventional. Levi spent his formative years absorbing the beauty of the countryside of northwestern Italy surrounding his native town. He also did well at absorbing knowledge and finished high school at the age of seventeen. After high school, Levi began to study medicine at the University of Turin, finishing his studies at the age of twenty-two in 1924. While a student, Levi was also politically active. He joined the Ordine Nouvo, a Communist youth organization, and was active in the mounting resistance to Benito Mussolini’s Fascists.

Levi began to paint without ever really having planned to become a painter. He submitted a portrait he had painted to the Quadriennale of modern art in Turin in 1923, and the picture was not only accepted but also singled out for great critical praise. He was invited back the next year and went on to become one of Italy’s great modern painters. It is interesting to note that a man who has become known outside Italy for his writings identified himself primarily as a painter, and his canvases command high prices. Levi also continued his political and anti-Fascist activities. In the early 1930’s he was arrested several times but was always eventually released. In 1935, however, he was arrested again. This time, he was sentenced to internal exile in the deep south of Italy. He was sent to the province of Lucania, first to the village of Grassano, and soon after, to the village of Galliano. The time he spent in Lucania, especially in Galliano, was to provide inspirational fuel for both Levi the painter and, eventually, Levi the writer.

For Levi, the city intellectual and freedom fighter, the encounter with rural backwardness was a culture shock. Initially he did nothing but lament his lost freedom and hate his new social environment. Still, he began to take an interest in the suffering of the peasants, who were now his sole human company, and he came to appreciate their unlimited patience in the face of what one biographer has called an “ancient suffering” and the constant battle for basic, physical survival. Levi immersed himself in the peasant culture; he used his skills as a doctor to cure them of diseases, and he came to have a deep emotional attachment to them. Years...

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(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Bondanella, Peter, Julia Conaway Bondanella, and Jody Robin Shiffman, eds. Dictionary of Italian Literature. Expanded rev. ed. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996. Contains a succinct portrayal of Levi.

Hughes, H. Stuart. Prisoners of Hope: The Silver Age of the Italian Jews, 1924-1974. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983. Records the work and environment of Carlo Levi and other Italian-Jewish writers of the Holocaust generation.

Pacifici, Sergio. “Carlo Levi: The Essayist as a Novelist.” In The Modern Italian Novel: From Pea to Moravia. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1979. A discussion of Levi’s place in Italian literature.

Ward, David. Antifascisms, Cultural Politics in Italy, 1943-46: Benedetto Croce and the Liberals, Carlo Levi and the “Actionists.” Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996. A concentrated look at Levi’s activism during the Facist years in Italy. Includes a bibliography and index.