Candide Analysis
by Voltaire

Candide book cover
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Places Discussed

(Critical Guide to Settings and Places in Literature)

Castle of Thunder-ten-tronckh

Castle of Thunder-ten-tronckh. Castle in Westphalia of Baron Thunder-ten-tronckh, Candide’s presumed father, in which Candide is born and from which he is eventually expelled. Voltaire’s ironic description of the castle sets the tone for the entire text. According to Candide’s mentor, the Optimist philosopher Pangloss, the castle is the best of all castles in the best of all possible worlds. Voltaire immediately undercuts this notion by “supporting” it with carefully chosen ironic details. For example, the castle is a fine one because it has windows and a door, and a piece of tapestry in the great hall. A fine castle would have many windows and doors, and tapestries everywhere to insulate its occupants from the cold stone walls. Voltaire’s narrator goes further, describing the castle’s 350-pound baroness of Thunder-ten-tronckh, a pack of ordinary dogs that doubles as the baron’s hunting pack, and household servants who double as huntsmen. If the castle truly were the best of all possible castles, its baroness should personify grace and beauty, it would have dogs used for hunting only, and would have servants dedicated to training and managing the hunting dogs. The greatest irony lies in Pangloss’s insistence that stones were made for building castles, so man has castles. Castles were built for defense; in an ideal world, there would be no need for defense.

El Dorado

El Dorado. South American utopia that Candide and his servant, Cacambo, discover by accident during their flight from Jesuit missionaries in Paraguay. Unlike other locales in the novel, El Dorado truly is the best of all possible worlds, the very antithesis of corrupt European civilization. Gold, which the people of El Dorado call “yellow mud,” is everywhere, and precious stones litter the ground, but the inhabitants care nothing for these riches. Travelers in El Dorado—even outsiders like Candide and Cacambo—are welcomed and entertained sumptuously at government expense. The people do little but praise God, as if with one voice, and the king of El Dorado is the very model of the modern enlightened monarch. No one wants to leave this paradise—except the two irrational European visitors, who want nothing more than to exploit its wealth.


*Lisbon. Capital city of Portugal, in which thirty thousand people were killed by an earthquake on All Saints’ Day in 1755. Lisbon’s earthquake forced Optimists to re-examine their beliefs, in part because it occurred on a religious holiday and candles used in the celebrations caused countless fires. How could a benevolent God permit such a tragedy in the best of all possible worlds? In the novel, Lisbon symbolizes all that is wrong with Pangloss’s beloved Optimism. The most generous man in the novel, Jacques the Anabaptist, drowns in the harbor, while the brutish sailor he rescues survives unscathed.

Candide and Pangloss help the people of Lisbon extinguish fires and care for the injured while the rescued sailor, who epitomizes the evil in human nature, robs the dead, gets drunk, and fornicates with a prostitute amid the stench of the burning city and the moans of the dying. To prevent more earthquakes, the leaders of the Inquisition (also leaders of the university and therefore some of the best educated men in Europe) try to appease God by burning to death supposed heretics, none of whom is actually guilty. After rain—perhaps a sign from God the Inquisitors choose to ignore—extinguishes the fires, Pangloss is hanged for nothing more than discussing free will over dinner, and the naïve Candide is flogged merely for listening to Pangloss. Later that same day, another earthquake strikes, revealing the vanity of this “civilized” human sacrifice. For Voltaire, this great capital represents greed, cruelty, and superstition, the real bases of European “civilization.”

Land of the Oreillons

Land of the Oreillons. Region bordering Paraguay that Voltaire uses to build an...

(The entire section is 4,646 words.)