Last Updated on January 16, 2020, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 861
Candida is a romantic comedy by the famous Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw that was published in 1898 as a part of his collection Plays Pleasant . It is set in Victorian London and consists of three acts which take place at intervals throughout a single day. The first act...
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Candida is a romantic comedy by the famous Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw that was published in 1898 as a part of his collection Plays Pleasant. It is set in Victorian London and consists of three acts which take place at intervals throughout a single day. The first act takes place in the morning, the second in the afternoon, and the third in the evening. In the play, two men compete for affections of the charming and motherly Candida: her husband, the Christian socialist Reverend James Morell, and eighteen-year-old poet Eugene Marchbanks. At the end, the men insist that Candida decide whether she will stay with her husband or accept the advances of Marchbanks, who believes that she deserves much more than Morell can give her.
In his discussion with Proserpine (Morell’s secretary), Lexy (Morell’s curate) remarks that if women truly knew men’s strength, “there would be no Woman Question.” Lexy and Morell clearly believe that men merit their place at the head of the household because of their inherent strength. However, Morell’s relationship with Candida demonstrates the opposite. According to Candida in act 3, Morell has been spoiled with a loving, supportive family and a successful career. As a result, he has become “weak,” and Candida must provide for him, defending him against critics and taking care of “little vulgar cares” so that he can concentrate on his job. Candida’s provision for Morell and his dependence on her is, for the most part, subtle. But this is because Candida allows Morell to believe he is independent. In act 3, for example, Candida threatens to throw Marchbanks out of the house, but Morell protests that he is “able to take care of [himself].” To this, Candida responds,
Yes, dear: of course you are. But you mustn’t be annoyed and made miserable.
In the final act, Morell demonstrates his blindness to his own weakness and dependence on his wife by claiming that he provides protection for her. Additionally, Morell fears that if Candida leaves him for Marchbanks, she will have no one left to protect her. Marchbanks, on the contrary, realizes the truth, at least partially, before Candida reveals it to the two men: Candida desires “some grown up man who has become as a little child again.” It is significant, in light of this quote, that Candida repeatedly calls Morell “my boy” in the course of the play.
Marchbanks’s claim that Candida desires a man she can protect is validated when she ultimately chooses Morell because he is “the weaker of the two.” There is great irony in the fact that Marchbanks, for all his nervousness, is not the “weak man” she desires. Candida explains to the men her reasons for choosing Morell while they all sit around the fireplace in Morell’s study. Morell’s position sitting in a child’s chair near Candida symbolizes his childlike dependence on her.
The contrasting “bids” of Morell and Marchbanks can be viewed as two opposing models of marriage. Morell offers Candida his “strength,” “honesty of purpose,” “ability and industry,” and “authority and position,” remarking at the end that this “is all it becomes a man to offer a woman.” Morell views himself, the husband, as the head of the family and an authoritative figure for his wife. Marchbanks, on the other hand, offers his “weakness,” “desolation,” and “heart’s need.” While it is not quite clear what Marchbanks’s views on marriage are, he readily admits his weakness and offers her the opportunity to care for him. In the end, Candida chooses neither the traditional role as submissive wife nor the unconventional role as a provider. Instead, she reveals that she is already in a relationship where her husband depends on her. Her choice to remain with Morell humbles him, and he finally exclaims, “What I am you have made me with the labor of your hands and the love of your heart!”
While the progressive ideas expressed in Candida may seem somewhat inconsequential when viewed through a modern, feminist lens, Candida’s relationship with her husband would likely have been considered radical, if not scandalous, when this play was written at the end of the Victorian era. Only a few decades earlier, progressive writer John Stuart Mill wrote in The Subjection of Women that the relationship between husband and wife often resembled that of master and slave. Before the social reforms of the late-nineteenth and twentieth centuries for women’s rights, wives lost all of their rights to property upon marriage and required their husbands’ permission for virtually any action. Likewise, the husband held the position of authority in the household and was expected to be the provider for the family. Based on his attitude regarding the “Woman Question” and his initial eagerness to not appear dependent on his wife, it appears that Morell is operating under this traditional view of marriage. Shaw’s revelation of Candida’s provision for Morell at the end of the play, however, suggests that perhaps husbands’ success as providers and heads of their households depends less on their own abilities and far more on their wives’ support.
Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 568
*Hackney. Unfashionable middle-class district in northeastern London; an unattractive place, with miles of unlovely brick houses, black iron railings, stony pavements, and gray slate-roofed buildings. Most houses have front gardens whose lawns are divided by pathways from their front gates to their hall doors. Near the end of Hackney Road is Victoria Park, 217 acres of open space fenced by wooden paling. It has plenty of open grass fields, trees, a lake for swimmers, flowerbeds, and a sandpit for children to play in. A bandstand, cricket pitches, and a gymnasium are also among the park’s attractions. The parsonage has a good view over the park from its front window.
Victoria Park is still an important open space in Hackney, with most of the features described by Shaw. Mare Street—the location of a public hall in which Morell is to speak on the evening in which the play takes place—is the left hand roadway at the park end of Hackney Road.
St. Dominic’s parsonage
St. Dominic’s parsonage. Hackney home of the Christian Socialist clergyman James Morell and his wife, Candida. Located only three minutes by horse-drawn Hansom cab from a train station, the parsonage is a semidetached building with a front garden and a flight of steps leading up from the path. The tradesmen’s entrance is down steps to the basement, which has a breakfast room in the front, used for all meals, as the formal dinning room is used as a meeting room, and a kitchen in the back. There are other rooms on an upper floor, including bedrooms.
The drawing room on the ground floor, where Morell works, has a large window overlooking Victoria. This room is furnished with a long table across the window with a revolving chair at one end where Morell habitually sits so that he can gaze at the park. The table is littered with pamphlets, letters, journals, nests of drawers and an office diary. A smaller table at the other end bears a typewriter, and Morell’s typist, Miss Proserpine Garrett, sits at the table with her back to the window. There is a chair for visitors in the center of the room.
The parsonage’s furniture is unpretentious, as would be expected in the home of a parson of limited means. The wall to the left of the window is fitted with bookshelves containing theological books. On the opposite wall is the entry door, and next to it, opposite the fireplace is a bookcase standing on a cabinet, near a sofa. A generous fire is burning in the fireplace with a comfortable armchair and a black japanned coal-scuttle to one side of the hearth; a miniature chair for children stands on the other. The hearth is surrounded by a fender and a rug lies on the floor before it. The mantle piece is made of varnished wood with neatly molded shelves, tiny bits of mirror let into the panels, and a traveling clock in a leather case on it. Above the fireplace hangs an autotype of the chief figure in Titian’s painting Assumption of the Virgin, chosen because Morell imagines a spiritual resemblance between the Virgin and his own wife that indicates the moral purity he believes his wife has.
Apart from the cluttered table, the room is neat and clean. This indicates a difference in the personalities of Reverend Morell and his wife.
Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 232
Carpenter, Charles A. “Critical Comedies.” In Bernard Shaw and the Art of Destroying Ideals: The Early Plays. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969. Treats Candida as a sentimental comedy and discusses the conflict of ideals in the play. Devotes much space to an analysis of Candida’s character and to her ability to use sympathy to dominate the other characters in the play.
Crompton, Louis. “Candida.” In Shaw the Dramatist. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1969. Discusses the social, philosophical, and especially historical backgrounds of Candida. A clear presentation of Shaw’s ideas and their sources in the nineteenth century intellectual tradition.
Holroyd, Michael. Bernard Shaw: The Search for Love. New York: Random House, 1988. This first volume of the standard biography of Shaw details the connections between Shaw’s life and thought and his works. Indispensable.
Merritt, James D. “Shaw and the Pre-Raphaelites.” In Shaw: Seven Critical Essays, edited by Norman Rosenblood. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971. Focuses on the character of Marchbanks and on the various references in the play to art, which Merritt relates to the Pre-Raphaelites and the art-for-art’s-sake movement of the 1890’s.
Stanton, Stephen. A Casebook on Candida. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1962. Very useful as an introduction to the play. Contains not only the text of the play and its sources but also selected prefaces and notes by Shaw and a wide variety of brief interpretations and criticism.