Last Updated on July 29, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 255
Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat (1997), written by Mike Hawkins, explores the way individual thinkers and larger social groups define and interpret the theories of Social Darwinism. It also examines the traditional and revisionist approaches historians have taken with Social Darwinism.
Modern Man in Search of a Soul (1933) summarizes many of Carl Jung's psychoanalytical theories. London discovered Jung's work late in life and found in it an expression of many ideas that corresponded with his own. Most notably, Jung's theory of the "collective unconscious" was anticipated in The Call of the Wild.
Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book (1895) is a collection of tales featuring Mowgli, a young boy raised by wolves. The stories take place in the jungles of India and include a cast of talking animals who teach Mowgli valuable lessons. These stories were among the most popular animal stories for children when London wrote The Call of the Wild.
Martin Eden (1909) was London's most autobiographical novel. It chronicles the story of a young man who rises from poverty to fame as an internationally-acclaimed author.
In The Road (1907), London describes his early tramping experiences and traces his development from hobo and "blond-beastly" adventurer to an author and a socialist.
In White Fang (1906), considered a companion piece to The Call of the Wild, London depicts a wild dog who becomes domesticated, reversing Buck's transformation.
Frank Norris's McTeague (1899) is a classic example of naturalism, as heredity and environment determine the fate of luckless individuals in turn-of-the-century San Francisco.