The Calendar Further Reading - Essay

Further Reading

(Literary Criticism (1400-1800))

Black, F. A. The Calendar and Its Reform. London: Gall and Inglis, 1932, 80 p.

Details the Julian and Gregorian reforms of the Roman calendar.

Landes, David S. Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983, 482 p.

In-depth history of one thousand years of innovation in time measurement.

Mukherjee, Sudhish Kumar. Calendar: An Analytical Investigation. Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1978, 32 p.

Comparative study of the Gregorian and Indian calendars.

O'Neil, William M. Time and the Calendars. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1975, 138 p.

Analysis of various world calendars—Egyptian, Roman, Babylonian, Chinese, and others—and the astronomical events associated with their creation.

Palmer, Geoffrey and Noel Lloyd. A Year of Festivals: A Guide to British Calendar Customs. London: Frederick Warne, 1972, 192 p.

Explores age-old rites connected with the English calendar, from pagan origins to modern Christian celebrations.

Perkins, Maureen. Visions of the Future: Almanacs, Time, and Cultural Change, 1775-1870. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996, 270 p.

Probes the history of the almanac genre in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Poole, Reginald L. “The Beginning of the Year in the Middle Ages.” Proceedings of the British Academy 1921-1923, pp. 113-37. Reprint. Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint, 1976.

Discusses several Western systems of reckoning the beginning of a new year prior to the gradual acceptance of January 1st during the sixteenth century.

Saha, M. N. and N. C. Lahiri. History of the Calendar in Different Countries Through the Ages. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1992, 279 p.

Examination of numerous calendar systems, their uses and relative merits.

Sohmer, Steve. “Certain Speculations on Hamlet, the Calendar, and Martin Luther.” Early Modern Literary Studies 2, No. 1 (1996): 1-51.

Mentions Shakespeare's use of “seasonal, astronomical, and calendrical cues” in Hamlet.

Stevens, Wesley M. “Cycles of Time: Calendrical and Astronomical Reckonings in Early Science.” In Cycles of Time and Scientific Learning in Medieval Europe, pp. 27-51. Aldershot, Hampshire: Variorum, 1995.

Considers the Hellenic and Christian sources of the Western calendar.

Willard, James F. “Occupations of the Months in Mediaeval Calendars.” In A History of Book Illustration: 29 Points of View, edited by Bill Katz, pp. 231-38. Metuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow Press, 1994.

Summarizes the conventions associated with the depiction of labor in medieval calendar illumination, and significant departures from these conventions in extant manuscripts.