What are ethical reasons for the active pursuit of diversity and, conversely, ethical reasons for a more passive approach? Assume the type of diversity in question is increasing workforce representation of women and ethnic minorities.

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There is no doubt that diversity in the workplace is a good thing, but how to achieve it is a subject of controversy. The active pursuit of diversity is often embodied in affirmative action guidelines, rules, and laws. On the other hand, passively pursuing diversity would involve assessing applicants on a case-by-case basis rather than on statistical averages.

There are numerous ethical and practical reasons for actively pursuing workplace diversity. For instance, a diverse work environment offers a business a wider range of viewpoints and input. It also reflects the diversity of the country at large, increasing the possibility of attracting the attention of more potential customers. Actively attempting to employ a diverse workforce makes up for long-time discrimination, providing a better overall balance of employment. It helps to overcome unconscious biases built up over decades and even centuries. It also helps mitigate disadvantages that many minorities still have to overcome, of poverty and lack of access to quality education. When companies actively attempt to diversify their workforces, it offers hope to women and minorities and inspires them to continue striving for better lives for themselves and their loved ones.

On the other hand, there are also ethical reasons for pursuing a more passive approach to workplace diversity. First of all, the active pursuit of diversity through programs such as affirmative action can cause reverse discrimination. Instead of choosing workers on their merits, employers are forced to choose them because of other considerations such as gender and race. Some people that may be better qualified are turned down for jobs that they are ideally suited for. Additionally, a stigma may develop if women and minorities are hired due to a need for diversity instead of their superior skills. The passive approach believes that the filling of job positions should be decided on merit, not because someone is a woman or belongs to a minority group. The quality of work may suffer if people are hired not because of merit but rather because of their gender or race.

We see, then, that the issue of how to promote diversity in the workplace is a complex one with ethical considerations on both sides of the argument.

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Ethically, it is important to value diversity in the workplace. Without actively pursuing diversity, a workplace might exclude certain certain groups and potentially express subconscious biases that prevent diversity from naturally arising. In this way, it is vital to pursue diversity intentionally.

On the other hand, active inclusion could almost be seen as more detrimental simply because you are still singling out minorities and focusing on people's differences, even if the intent is positive. Additionally, it may mean intentionally selecting a minority who has less experience than another candidate, which could be considered detrimental to your workplace and discriminatory against the individual with more experience.

The problem with the diversity issue is that there is no solution that will make everyone happy. Eventually, when equality is common throughout workplaces, it will be simpler to utilize passive inclusion, because there should be no discrepancy in the number of diverse workers.

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Workforce diversity is a good thing. The question is how to achieve it, and to what ends. If we believe a company has a moral obligation to help society move towards gender and racial justice, we might think something along the lines of quotas or active recruitment would be the appropriate approach. If we believe a company has no explicit duty to society in this way, a passive approach that emphasizes candidate worker skills and experience would be the logical path forward.

Affirmative action, in the broadest sense of the term, is supposed to break apart the stratification and de facto segregation of both society-at-large and local communities and neighborhoods. By making it a matter of company policy to proportionately represent women and racial minorities in the workforce, any disparities in access to education, work experience, or capital that might exist for a marginalized population can be compensated for, enabling upward mobility in communities previously limited by cultural circumstances.

But a major criticism of affirmative action is that it goes against the meritocratic ideals of an industrial society. Qualified white, male, or white male candidates are given an additional barrier to employment because of a statistical assumption they have more 'privileges' and cultural advantages than female and non-white candidates. Every person is born into the world without any say about their gender or race, and each person finds him- or herself working his or her own path through the world. A consistent ethical lens would have us observe the many impoverished and underprivileged white males that statistically-based quotas could easily ignore.

Instead, such arguments often go, we should encourage diversity in other venues and in other ways, but should take a less hands-on approach when it comes to hiring policy. That way, the most qualified candidates will rise to the top regardless of their race or gender, and we'll hopefully get closer to a race- and gender-neutral world through the merit of hard work.

The right answer seems to lie somewhere in between these two poles. Privately-held companies cannot reasonably be expected to solve the long-standing and deep-rooted injustices of our culture. They also cannot reasonably be completely absolved of responsibility to the culture they depend upon for their existence. Privately-held companies did not create the conditions that led to the under-representation of women in STEM fields, for example. Large tech firms are in a position to address this problem on behalf of society, though, and to benefit from the side-effects that will come from affirming and supporting women's futures in math and science.

The ethics of this question are complicated enough, but there's an entirely different discussion to be had about the natural benefits of diversity to any given company and its already existing workforce. Having diversity on paper and by quota doesn't guarantee the maximal effects of true diversity, but it certainly guarantees some kind of beneficial well-roundedness in the workforce that can make the company culture more interesting, resilient, and balanced. These benefits are mostly intangible and unquantifiable. A business can't be completely reduced to numbers, after all.

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Assuming that the type of diversity in question is increasing workforce representation of women and ethnic minorities, list some ethical reasons for the active pursuit of diversity.

When we think about what is ethical, we are thinking about what aligns with our sense of right and wrong or, in other words, with our morals. In a workplace, consideration for what is right and wrong must be given on multiple levels in order to ensure that the business itself is ethical. That is, good ethics must inform how people interact with each other (e.g., superiors with their subordinates, coworkers with each other, upper management with lower management, representatives of a business with its consumers), how decisions are made, how the product or service is marketed or distributed, and so on. Actively pursuing gender and ethnic diversity within a company's ranks helps to create a workplace where women and people of color are able to have a voice and to be present at the decision-making table.

One ethical reason for pursing diversity in the workplace, then, is that hiring women and people of color ensures that more perspectives can be shared. The more ways of looking at, say, a workplace problem, the more likely that the solution to that problem will be a responsible one, one that will do the least harm, and one that could potentially benefit a wider group of people.

For example, let's say a company is trying to decide on a marketing campaign for their new product. We know that advertising is one of the ways that a company's values are broadcast to a large audience, and those values are meant to speak to the audience as a means of convincing them to buy the product or service. In other words, if the values of a company align with a customer's own values, the customer is more likely to gravitate toward that product. Having a diverse group of people working on marketing strategies, then, can help to develop a message that is appealing to more people. If the company's belief is that their product or service is something that can benefit people, then persuading more people of this belief is important. It is also worth noting that when many different kinds of people collaborate, as is customary if not necessary in most workplace environments, more competing ideas are likely to be shared. From the tensions that emerge as a result, a new sense of what the priorities of the company are and should be will develop as well. These priorities will be reflective of and aligned with a more diverse group of people's values, and not just the priorities of, say, white men.

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