Bruce Chatwin Biography


(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

In the twelve years before his death, Charles Bruce Chatwin produced five books of superlative quality and in the process invented a new form of the novel somewhere between travel literature, pure fiction, and the novel of ideas. He was born to a middle-class family, Margharita Turnell Chatwin and her husband, Charles Leslie Chatwin, a lawyer who served in the navy during the war. Chatwin was sent to an excellent boys’ school, Marlborough, and by the age of eighteen he was working as a porter for the international art dealer Sotheby’s. By chance, despite the fact that he had no formal training in art, he identified a Pablo Picasso gouache as a counterfeit; on the strength of his talent for assessing paintings, he became a working member of the staff, specializing in the Impressionists as well as with art from the South Seas and Africa. By his early twenties he was a senior official at Sotheby’s, and it was there that he met his wife, Elizabeth Chandler.

He left Sotheby’s after an illness, advised by his physician to do some traveling. He went to Africa and studied archaeology at Edinburgh University for a short time. As a result of photographs he had taken in the desert, he was offered a job as an art consultant with the London Sunday Times. He often traveled to develop material for the paper, but in 1975 he decided that he wanted to go to Patagonia to write a book about that remote section of southern South America. In Patagonia was an enormous success, in part because it was quite unlike the usual kind of travel literature. This was a kind of antitravel book. Most critics praised the author for his refusal to stick to the facts and for the curious collection of local tall tales and eccentric history. Chatwin himself called the mix of history, myth, autobiography, anthropology, and occasional fiction a “search.”

In his next work, The Viceroy of Ouidah, Chatwin took the idea of fusing fiction and fact a step further. While working on a book about the slave trade in Dahomey, he began to imagine the life of a slave trader who was so important to the local chiefs that he became a figure of political power in the old port of Ouidah and ultimately founded a dynasty that lasted into the twentieth century. The resulting work is partly based on historical fact, but those facts are hardly important to the grand, grotesque world of extravagant eccentricity Chatwin conjured up. The work proved Chatwin to be an authentic and very original talent who could not be classified as a mere travel writer.

Chatwin’s next book, On the Black Hill, could be seen as a drawing back from eccentric distances; set in the hills on the Welsh-English border, it not only confirmed (as the first two books had suggested) that Chatwin had a daring imagination but also that he could write with considerable feeling. The tale of two Welsh twins living out their interdependent lives in the natural richness, and sometime social and physical squalor, of farm life had all the energy of the earlier books. Moreover, Chatwin’s preternatural gift for telling seemingly unconnected stories and the fecundity of his descriptive talent came together here to create something that is tonally reminiscent of Thomas Hardy.

Chatwin did not stay home for long,...

(The entire section is 1341 words.)


(Survey of Novels and Novellas)

Charles Bruce Chatwin was born in Sheffield, England, on May 13, 1940. His mother was Margharita Turnell and his father was Charles Leslie Chatwin, a lawyer in Birmingham. The family lineage descended from a Birmingham button manufacturer, but a number of Chatwin’s ancestors had been lawyers and architects. Although the family moved around England during World War II, Chatwin attended one of England’s more prestigious public schools, Marlborough College. He did not excel academically, but he did fall in love with Edith Sitwell’s anthology Planet and Glow Worm (1944), along with the poems of Charles Baudelaire, Gérard de Nerval, and especially Arthur Rimbaud. These works engendered Chatwin’s interest in French literature and culture. His favorite English poets were William Blake and Christopher Smart, and the prose works of Jeremy Taylor and Sir Thomas Browne helped him sharpen his own style.

After graduating from Marlborough, Chatwin began working for the well-known art auction house of Sotheby and Company as a uniformed porter. He became famous at Sotheby’s when he casually pointed out that a newly acquired Picasso gouache was actually a fake. After his supervisor called in experts who verified Chatwin’s claim, the young man quickly rose to one of the top positions in the company; he soon became the youngest partner in the firm’s history.

Chatwin married an American woman, Elizabeth Chanler, who was the secretary of...

(The entire section is 599 words.)