How do the castes in Brave New World differ from each other?

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One significant difference is that the two highest castes - Beta and Alpha - are not mass-produced, and thus have a degree of individuality. That individuality extends, logically, to physical characteristics as well as to personality. Moreover, just as the highest caste - Alpha - is comprised of the tallest,...

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most beautiful individuals, the Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon workers are progressively shorter and uglier.

Huxley is implying that there is a caste system today, though based on race and economics as opposed to something similar to cloning.

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There are many differences, but briefly, the different castes are Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons. The upper castes are intelligent and have managerial jobs, whereas the lower castes do the manual labor. The Alphas have what we would consider the best jobs, and it continues down until the Epsilons, who have the least skilled jobs. The Alphas are tall and fair, while the Epsilons are dark-skinned, reflecting the prejudices of that time period. They also wear a specific color. For example, the Gammas wear green and the Deltas wear Khaki.

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What is the caste system in Brave New World?

Simply put, the caste system in Brave New World is based on intelligence that was more or less determined during conception. 

Therefore, those of higher castes (and thus higher intellect), were the most nurtured throughout their embryonic development. However, those of lower castes had their mental development actively sabotaged by dividing one embryo multiple times through Bokanovsky's Process and then by adding alcohol or restricting oxygen flow to these fetuses. There are five total castes, all of which are characterized below and organized in descending order.

Alphas: They typically dress in gray and are extremely intelligent. They hold the most sophisticated jobs. They are prone to becoming very individual and to crave more than a strictly structured society can give them (e.g. Bernard and Helmholtz). 

Betas: They usually wear mulberry colored clothes and are intelligent enough to easily perform skilled work, though the work they do is slightly less complex than what Alphas do. As well, they are far less likely to be dissatisfied with what society has to offer them.

Gammas: They most often dress in green and are considered to be of average intelligence. They are moderately skilled laborers, often working as mechanics or in other positions that involve manual labor and a degree of thought. Gammas and the proceeding castes go through Bokanovsky's Process and have their development hindered as a fetus. 

Deltas: They dress in khaki and have very little individuality and intellect. They are employed in simple and repetitive professions such as helicopter attendants or factory workers.

Epsilons: They wear black and are often referred to as "semi-morons" because they lack even the ability to read and write. They do the most menial and unwanted jobs. 

Also, due to the sabotage of embryonic growth, people of lower castes are much shorter and considered uglier than people of higher castes.

It should be noted that all of the above plays into the overall theme of class conflict Huxley is trying to present and satirize.  

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In Brave New World, how are the various castes different from one another?

It becomes clear as you read the first chapter of this amazing book and we are given a tour of a "Hatchery" that there are five castes in this society, each named after the first five letters of the Greek alphabet: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon. It also becomes clear that they are organised in order of importance, with alphas being the most important and epsilons the least. Consider what the Director of Hatcheries says to his visitors:

"We also predestine and condition. We decant our babies as socialised human beings, as Alphas or Epsilons, as future sewage workers or future..." He was going to say future World Controllers, but correcting himself, said "future Directors of Hatcheries" instead.

As we read on it becomes clear that Epsilons are given less oxygen to ensure that they have an "Epsilon environment as well as an Epsilon heredity" ensuring that this society is not troubled by any intelligent Epsilons.

Thus the first chapter introduces us to the most radically stratified class system in the world, all organized by genetic engineering and advanced science, to create five types of humans with clearly demarcated positions and roles in society.

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