Through most of the world’s history, there was little concern for censorship of obscene materials. Instead, the focus of censors was on political and religious ideas. Rigorous campaigns, with or without the benefit of law, were launched against people labeled heretics or revolutionaries. Obscene material was sometimes attacked as so immoral as to be heretical; the Marquis de Sade’s writings describe themselves as such. It was not until the nineteenth century that great attention was directed toward obscene materials.