Historical Context

(Poetry for Students)

History of Peru

Peru had been inhabited for thousands of years when, in the twelfth century, the...

(The entire section is 851 words.)

Literary Style

(Poetry for Students)


Repetition is a signature device that Vallejo used throughout his career as a poet. The opening line...

(The entire section is 1217 words.)

Bibliography and Further Reading

(Poetry for Students)

Arguelles, Ivan, Review of The Black Heralds, in Library Journal, Vol. 115, Issue 6, April 1,...

(The entire section is 501 words.)


(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Hart, Stephen. Stumbling Between Forty-six Stars. London: Centre of César Vallejo Studies, 2007.

Higgins, James. César Vallejo: An Anthology of His Poetry. New York: Pergamon, 1970.

Sharman, Adam, ed. The Poetry and Poetics of Cesar Vallejo: The Fourth Angle of the Circle. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 1997.

Vallejo, César. Selected Poems. Edited by Stephen Hart. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2000.

Vallejo, César. Selected Poems. Translated by Michael Smith and Valentino Gianuzzi. Exeter, England: Shearsman Books, 2006.

Compare and Contrast

(Poetry for Students)

1918: In Russia, the Bolsheviks execute the Romanov royal family, setting up a series of events that eventually lead to...

(The entire section is 415 words.)

Topics for Further Study

(Poetry for Students)

• Look for two other existential poets and compare their works to that of Vallejo. What are the common themes among these poets? List and...

(The entire section is 187 words.)

What Do I Read Next?

(Poetry for Students)

• A complex and groundbreaking work, Vallejo’s second book of poetry, Trilce, contains seventy-seven poems filled with creative...

(The entire section is 264 words.)