Historical Context

History of Peru

Peru had been inhabited for thousands of years when, in the twelfth century, the...

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Literary Style


Repetition is a signature device that Vallejo used throughout his career as a poet. The opening line...

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Bibliography and Further Reading

Arguelles, Ivan, Review of The Black Heralds, in Library Journal, Vol. 115, Issue 6, April 1,...

(The entire section is 501 words.)


(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Hart, Stephen. Stumbling Between Forty-six Stars. London: Centre of César Vallejo Studies, 2007.

Higgins, James. César Vallejo: An Anthology of His Poetry. New York: Pergamon, 1970.

Sharman, Adam, ed. The Poetry and Poetics of Cesar Vallejo: The Fourth Angle of the Circle. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 1997.

Vallejo, César. Selected Poems. Edited by Stephen Hart. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2000.

Vallejo, César. Selected Poems. Translated by Michael Smith and Valentino Gianuzzi. Exeter, England: Shearsman Books, 2006....

(The entire section is 77 words.)

Compare and Contrast

1918: In Russia, the Bolsheviks execute the Romanov royal family, setting up a series of events that eventually lead to...

(The entire section is 415 words.)

Topics for Further Study

• Look for two other existential poets and compare their works to that of Vallejo. What are the common themes among these poets? List and...

(The entire section is 187 words.)

What Do I Read Next?

• A complex and groundbreaking work, Vallejo’s second book of poetry, Trilce, contains seventy-seven poems filled with creative...

(The entire section is 264 words.)