Part 1 Summary

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Last Updated on March 23, 2020, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 1208

Written as a letter to author Ta-Nehisi Coates’s teenage son, Between the World and Me explores the experience of living inside a black body. From the start, Coates maintains that the success of white America is possible due to its history of looting and violence. He examines Lincoln’s proclamation in 1863 regarding a “government of the people, by the people” and notes that “the people” is actually conflicting phrasing. After all, in 1863, this certainly did not include women and children. Part of this conflict is due to Americans’ need to classify groups by race, which Coates suggests does not exist as an entity in itself but is instead a product of racism.

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Americans, and white Americans particularly, enjoy living in “the Dream.” It is symbolized by Memorial Day cookouts, driveways, Cub Scouts, and treehouses. It has a smell: peppermint. It tastes like strawberry shortcake. Coates has at times wanted to escape into this Dream that never included him, but he also realizes that the Dream was built on the backs of blacks in America.

Coates has seen fear in the black faces around him for his entire life. The black boys who wore big rings and medallions paired with big, puffy coats and full-length, fur-collared leathers were afraid. The black girls who laughed loudly, wearing gilded bamboo earrings, just before squaring off for a fight were afraid. His father, who delivered punishment with a black leather belt, was afraid. The mother of the girl on the bus who whipped her daughter with cables and extension cords was also afraid. The ultimate source of fear is “the system that makes [a black] body breakable.”

When he was eleven, Coates was standing at a 7-Eleven when another boy reached into his ski jacket and pulled out a gun, a “rage” welling up in his eyes that let Coates know that his body could be easily “erased.” Coates told no one.

In order to survive, Coates explains that he first had to survive the streets. “Crews” roamed Baltimore, and their fear had transformed into a rage that proved an ongoing source of danger. Coates was forced to learn a language of head nods and handshakes that became essential in securing his body. He tells his son that he always knew that this third of his brain which was always focused on keeping his body safe should have been enjoying some more beautiful part of life.

Yet it was not just the streets which Coates had to survive. He states that “if the streets shackled my right leg, schools shackled my left.” In school, he learned to follow rules, such as always walking on the right side of the hall and having extra number 2 pencils. He was forced to sit through French class, although he had never met a French person and “nothing around [him] suggested [he] ever would.” School felt distant, and worse, it seemed to have no time for the childhoods of black boys and girls.

Coates’s parents rejected all religions, so he never felt that any “just” God was on his side. The beatitude that “the meek shall inherit the earth” meant nothing; in Baltimore, he witnessed the meek being battered and bashed. 

He came to realize that the fear blacks felt was somehow connected to the Dream, but he could not determine the connection. Since his own father had been a local captain in the Black Panther party, he began reading all of his father’s old newspapers and books, trying to find these connections. Around the same time, he realized that his teachers always focused on the nonviolent heroes of the civil rights movement. And he simultaneously realized that white America claimed its land through murder and slavery. Civilization is secured and maintained through savage means. 

Coates began studying the philosophies of Malcolm X, who wasn’t celebrated for being non-violent. Instead, he issued...

(The entire section contains 1208 words.)

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Part 2 Summary