Ben Belitt Belitt, Ben - Essay


(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

Ben Belitt 1911–

American poet, translator, and nonfiction writer.

Belitt's verse is characterized by a traditional, complex, and careful use of language. This has brought him critical praise from some, yet others agree with Randall Jarrell, who calls him "not a poet but a rhetorician."

(See also Contemporary Authors, Vols. 13-16, rev. ed., and Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 5: American Poets since World War II.)

Ruth Lechlitner

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

It is Mr. Belitt's intention, he informs us in a preface to this outstanding first book ["The Five-Fold Mesh"], to effect a sequence which "attempts finally to establish usable relationships between the personal and the contemporary world."… Mr. Belitt has not only worked toward an orientation of outlook, every poem in this collection has been shaped with the most exquisite care; the studied art of the draftsman guides an instinctive feeling for rightness in shade, tone, balance. The compact "intellectual" manner, the metaphysical imagery, show obvious influences, and some of the poems recall, among the best writing of the twenties, the work of Louise Bogan and Leonie Adams.

Mr. Belitt's chief difficulty lies in bridging the gap between his mystical, non-realistic personal world, and the broad, complex, but essentially realistic aspects of the outer, contemporary world. One may see, specifically the discrepancies between his subjects, taken from his time, and his language—which is not of his time. If a poet seeks to interpret the life about him, to find those "usable relationships," he will draw from the idioms and cadences of the thought and speech of his day…. Much of Mr. Belitt's speech—established, "literary"—might come from the world of Herbert, Vaughan, or Donne; or from the medieval jousting field, or the cloister….

The final section of poems should be particularly mentioned, for in this sequence Mr. Belitt comes closest to effecting, in his own way, that transition between "the personal and the contemporary world." If I read correctly his intention, the first two poems refer to childhood's mystic search and to the confusion and hurts suffered by an adolescence torn between the desire to escape and the need to face reality. The concluding poem, "Battery Park: High Noon" shows Mr. Belitt at his best, and stands among the most distinguished poems recently written in this country. Here is that assertion of mystical continuity between self and the life of the outer world which Hart Crane felt so deeply, but never quite succeeded in expressing. Statements of activity on shore and seaward, separately, set down, are gathered—or rather released—into an element that is not of the isolate, personal channel alone, but common to all things: the creative, continuing process of evolutionary life.

Ruth Lechlitner, "Mystic and Realist," in New York Herald Tribune Books (© I.H.T. Corporation), October 3, 1938, p. 22.

Theodore Roethke

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

In the first three sections of [The Five-Fold Mesh] Ben Belitt is, for the most part, the traditional lyric poet. He constructs out of a past that includes the Shakespeare of the sonnets, Donne, Keats, and, more recently, Housman and Elinor Wylie. That "metaphysical" experience so alluring to the young provides much of the substance; the "simple responses" are made in a meticulously selected language which sometimes shows the effect of too much attention. At his worst Belitt presents the familiar spectacle of the male poet at work on his lyric embroidery: he is just another spiritual nephew of Elinor Wylie. But a firm control on his line prevents disaster even when he employs sentimental clichés….

A traditional form like the sonnet shows Belitt in typical achievement. All the examples in section II have real substance, dignity, and movement; all except the last one are just a bit mannered, even for sonnets. (p. 215)

In the central section of ten lyrics Belitt is sometimes a very young and sometimes a truly mature artist. The Duel is marred by attitudinizing. The basic image is archaic; the gentle hortatory cadences are boring…. But in Charwoman and Tarry, Delight the poet finally breaks loose from his usual tightly constricted patterns to create poems that have the immediately identifiable mark of an individual style.

The last three longer poems—Brief for a...

(The entire section is 434 words.)

May Swenson

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

Read consecutively, each of the four sections of Ben Belitt's [Wilderness Stair. Poems 1938–1954] presents us with a new and higher platform of poetic development. The first part opens with Dance Piece … and ends with Nightpiece; both are excellent formal lyrics out of the poet's soul-observatory. Between these we find a "travelogue" of poems with flashing impressions of places from Mexico to Manhattan; naked contrasts of sensations are employed; hard, sharp, torpid, often inorganic things are ranged alongside the tender and lively. The language supports the choice of symbols, and consistently in this group … the intention is seen to "strike a strenuous sweetness out of brine." Most impressive is the evidence of control and equilibrium in the handling of polarities of beauty and horror in Bull-Ring: Plaza Mexico.

A steeper ascent, toward the transcendence of self-conflict, is announced in the next section by the first lines of the long poem Later Testament: "Contest the habit of angels, Tempted the man from the wilderness stair."… [Here] an evolutionary step is taken in technique: language is pared of excess and metaphors are sculptured; scrupulous detail is less sought after than an effective whole with apocalyptic and psychological reverberations….

In his wrestling with opposite angels, one an exacting moral sense and the other a willingness to be overwhelmed by the sensual, Belitt occasionally sounds a too obvious echo of Gerard Manley Hopkins …, but such indulgences are found only in relatively minor poems, of which there are few in this ambitious second volume.

An unmistakable pinnacle is reached in the final section with four powerful war poems. Descent in a Parachute constructed around the symbol of the birth trauma, is at once an intuitive self-dissection and an analysis of man's precarious condition. In The Spool, the poet plunges into a daring new form and masters it. Abandoning the seductions of the pentameter and ambiguity of images, he relies on neither rhyme nor color, makes use only of blunt tonalities, of movement and light. Black, white, and gray as the film of which it might be the script, the language of this poem is forthright and strict, perhaps projecting a fresh, dynamic tangent for Ben Belitt's future work.

May Swenson, "A Poet's Progress," in The Nation (copyright 1955 The Nation magazine, The Nation Associates, Inc.), Vol. 180, No. 24, June 11, 1955, p. 508.

Babette Deutsch

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

Ben Bellit's book ["Wilderness Stair"] is a demanding one. But so admirably does he handle the purely aural values of verse that a reader who knew no English might well enjoy those richly patterned sounds. If his language is dense with meanings, it is also thick with other resonances. His rhythms, which recurrently approach and retreat from the classical hexameter, have a spring and balance peculiarly his own…. The literary references notwithstanding, the poems have to do not with letters but with life. Even the more opaque pages suggest what the luminous ones clarify: a sense of the tension that lies at the heart of a maintained harmony. There are, too, for the reader's immediate pleasure, glimpses of Vermont and Mexico, Nantucket or lower Manhattan, which will offer deeper significance when he returns to them again. And always there is the music of Ben Belitt's happily managed vocables and excellent phrasing.

Babette Deutsch, "Progress of Two Poets—K. S. Alling and Ben Belitt," in New York Herald Tribune Book Review (© I.H.T. Corporation; reprinted by permission), July 3, 1955, p. 4.∗

Randall Jarrell

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

I have never understood why I could feel so little interest in Ben Belitt's work—he is a writer of skill, force, and intelligence—but I have decided, after reading and rereading "Wilderness Stair," that it is because he is not a poet but a rhetorician. He is very much influenced by that very rhetorical poet Hart Crane … but where Crane, at his best, uses rhetoric to say something, Mr. Belitt says something to use rhetoric. Underneath all his writing there is the settled determination to use certain words, to take certain attitudes, to produce a certain atmosphere; what he is seeing or thinking or feeling has hardly any influence on the way he writes. (p. 237)

Randall Jarrell, "Recent Poetry: 'Wilderness Stair'," (originally published in The Yale Review, Vol. XLV, No. 1, September, 1955), in his Kipling, Auden & Co.: Essays and Reviews 1935–1964 (reprinted by permission of Farrar, Straus & Giroux, Inc.; copyright © 1955, 1980 by Mrs. Randall Jarrell), Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1980, pp. 237-38.

John M. Brinnin

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

[In "The Enemy Joy" Ben Belitt] writes with an unabashed sense of the grandeur and theatricality of the English tongue. Archaisms from which other poets turn away, the fabric and music other poets avoid like Tyrolean baroque, he embraces with pleasure and skill. He is not the man in the street and he never pretends that, just behind a gorgeous phrase or a nimble-fingered obbligato, he might be. One reads Belitt with delight in the fact that, even today, depths of feeling and the reports of a caustic eye are not necessarily presented in basic English or words of four letters.

Going against the grain, Belitt courts jeopardy, and there are occasions when he succumbs to the temptations of verbal ornament and the soufflé of pretty rhetoric. But for the greater part he is rich and vigorous, adequate to a tradition he loves and perpetuates. Among a host of new versifiers who sound like admen scratching the Madison Avenue chicken run for glittery items, he walks in self-possession, his eye elsewhere.

John M. Brinnin, "The Voices Have Range," in The New York Times Book Review (© 1964 by The New York Times Company; reprinted by permission), October 25, 1964, p. 54.∗

Wallace Fowlie

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

The Enemy Joy, which brings together early and recent poems, is a journeying to various places that are named, and also a sinking into distant levels of existences. The finite things which are everywhere in this book of poems reveal the infinite as lucidly as they reveal the selves of the poet. These selves have been joined together by means of a tremendous pressure.

Mr. Belitt favors the sequence of poems, where the exposing of a theme can be elaborated and developed and recalled from poem to poem…. [In the] five poems called Battle-Piece, deriving from Uccello's painting Battaglia di San Romano …, Mr. Belitt's art reaches its most perfected form. What the poet sees in this...

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Henry Taylor

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

Belitt likes unusual words, and [in Nowhere But Light gives] them a remarkable rightness of context….

Belitt's closely packed images and echoes, together with predominantly anapestic rhythms, draw me deep into the body of a poem before much of its prose sense is clear: I come to know the poems from the inside out….

Belitt's rhythms carry me swiftly onward, as if my sensibility were being bounced like a billiard ball among the clusters of echoes, until it comes to rest on the apparent simplicity of "time is made human again."…

Belitt develops ideas about the serenity to be salvaged from a precarious life; in the first section of his book, he veers between Vermont and Mexico, and comes to see himself as an "antipodal man": a figure teetering through disparate worlds, walking on the footsoles of his mirror-image, or of his other self.

This figure conjures up risk as a fact of life and of poetry. How to live with such risks is dealt with at length in "The Gorge," a five-part work arising from the poet's sojourns in Cuernavaca, where people have learned to live on nearly vertical slopes. Like those people, this poem is precariously, masterfully balanced: Belitt combines dense texture with openness of form, and he handles a wide variety of tones. Serenity comes with acceptance of hazard….

This paradoxical joy can transform even barrenness and death. That is the subject of "The Orphaning."… The section itself takes its title from the second part of the poem, "A Gift of Light"; the gift turns out to be reciprocal, for the poem is illumination offered in return for earlier gifts. "Time is made human again," and the losses and gains of the spirit are celebrated with power and dignity. (p. 122)

Henry Taylor, "Gifts of Light," in The Nation (copyright 1971 The Nation magazine, The Nation Associates, Inc.), Vol. 212, No. 4, January 25, 1971, pp. 122-23.∗

Howard Nemerov

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

[In The Enemy Joy] Belitt receives the world more exclusively by the ear than most; he writes by a kind of radar, and a relevant sound, by the rules of his procedures, is assumed to be a relevant sense; as though the one response would naturally evoke the other. Sometimes the defect of this virtue makes him put his elements a little too close together, as when he writes "a temple's example." But more often it is this reliance on how things sound that makes possible his characteristic combination of great elaboration with great intensity, in such phrases as "the pit of a petal's serration," "the plough, on its side in the leavening cloud/And the dazzle of stubble," "the kingdom of nuance, the fiends of inhuman...

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Joan Hutton Landis

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

In "reading toward" the poetry of Ben Belitt, I should like to examine some of the central themes and preoccupations of a poet whose very human yearning for the things of this world, as well as things ascribable to other worlds "intact and unseen, like the orange's scent in the orange tree," have too often been obscured by the scope of his erudition or the elliptical brilliancies of his tactics. (p. 187)

Belitt's early work, roughly that of his first two volumes, The Five-Fold Mesh (1938) and Wilderness Stair (1955), establishes the primary facts and figures of his world. It is a place closely attended by the qualities of betrayal and loss, a world in which he is both literally and...

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Hugh Kenner

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

[In The Double Witness the] "doublings" include kite and kiteflyer at either end of the string, changing places; salt tears and salt sea; Noah's ark and the Block Island ferry; the poet's hand and Keats's hand writing together (the one moving like a mirror-image beneath the paper), their nibs touching. Its world is a mirror-world, and many of the poems are creation-myths, calling into being whole catalogues simply by naming….

Belitt works with strings of words, polysemous lists. The list, since Homer, has been one of poetry's central devices…. Marianne Moore was the Leonardo of lists, but she did not have Ben Belitt's momentum, as of a man racing down a steep hill.


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David Bromwich

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

Ben Belitt's end [in The Double Witness] was and is to hold the mirror up to Hart Crane, and in the very torrent, tempest, and whirlwind of his passion to beget a tempest still more furious. He works at the job unflaggingly, and does it well. It is best to read him in a mood of embittered and somewhat reckless nostalgia, wondering why no one writes like that any more…. Belitt takes over all of the more easily identifiable properties of Crane's poems: the attributive noun, the doubling of catalogue-items …, plus a whole ferry-load of favorite words and things….

The Block Island sequence at the end of The Double Witness orchestrates many of the splendid and familiar sights...

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Christopher Nouryeh

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

Adam's Dream offers … a criticism of translation in which an understanding both of the functions of language and of its technical resources provides a fascinating and instructive method of language study.

The basic premise—that in translation it is a small thing to know, etymologically, the literal equivalent of foreign words, the important thing being to understand their intention and to render their effect in one's own way—is essentially sound. Thus any purely symbolic use of words can be reproduced if in two vocabularies similar symbolic distinctions have been developed. Otherwise new symbols will be required, and the degree of possible correspondence is a matter which can be simply...

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Lorrie Goldensohn

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

By now, Ben Belitt's habits of book construction should be clear: within … The Double Witness, several single stunning pieces like "Xerox" and "The Guanajuato Mummies;" then clusters of poems embedding such earlier single poems from other books in now completed sequences…. In a kind of back-stitching forward movement, each successive book cannibalizes a portion of the last; adds titles; drops titles; whitens intervals between sections, or colors them with new material altogether. (p. 182)

[Belitt] is not a poet, then, to be read by the occasional lyric. And yet readers should also be quick to reject any simple line of chronological development, with impending climaxes wrapped up and...

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