(Literary Masterpieces, Volume 15)

Joyce Carol Oates is one of America’s most prolific authors. Her novels, short stories, criticism, and poetry have been pouring out with startling regularity for almost two decades. Her work has varied from the almost naturalistic realism of A Garden of Earthly Delights to the social commentary of them to the impressionistic effects of Do with Me What You Will and Son of the Morning. Many of her stories are frankly experimental, exploring with subtlety and daring the furthest reaches of human emotion and consciousness. Not all of her fiction is completely successful, but the intensity of the attempt and the sincerity of the intent, as well as the sheer volume, always have remained impressive.

With Bellefleur, Oates moves into a new realm, carrying her experimentation into the Gothic romance genre. As might be expected, however, when she attempts a Gothic novel, complete with mist-shrouded castle and mysterious supernatural forces; she stretches and twists the form, making it into a new and daring structure quite her own. The book is not completely successful, but taken as a whole, it is, despite its flaws, a remarkable literary effort.

Oates’s intent, was to raise the popular form of the Gothic romance to the level of art, and to create within the genre a dark masterpiece which would encompass much of the American experience. This is an ambition of great daring, and the faults of the book tend to be the faults of the basic form. In addition, the Gothic romance structure and style tend to emphasize the faults which always have existed in Oates’s writing: a tendency to the exaggeratedly romantic, to the verbose, and to the overly emotional and overwrought.

While it is true that Oates does incorporate into her narrative actual historical events—such as the War of 1812, John Brown’s abolitionist activities, and the building of the Erie Canal—these episodes are not sufficient to root either the fantasy or the romantic violence in a plausible reality. Perhaps Bellefleur succeeds best as a vast allegory, a kind of prose poem about the dark side of the American spirit. Certainly, the book does convey much of the restlessness, the eccentric vision, the ruthless ambition, and the romantic longing which has characterized the growth of the nation from its earliest days.

Beyond this, however, Oates has captured a great deal of the American nightmare, of the horror that lurks not only in the collective subconscious, but also in each individual born into this hectic, ghost-dominated society. For, while Americans always have been proud of having no past—of building a great nation out of nothing—the fact is that America has, from the beginning, been haunted by its past, by the Europe from which its founders fled, and by its own injustices and crimes (slavery, to name the most obvious, and the rape of the Native Americans, for another). Like dark currents within each American psyche, these ghosts struggle to find expression. In Bellefleur, they are allowed to surface and show their hideous naked faces. And, if the symbolism at times seems heavy-handed, perhaps it is forgivable, since most of it was waiting for Oates to discover and use, as genuine symbols always are waiting to be found, rather than invented.

The Bellefleurs are a wealthy and notorious family that dominates a large section of a mountainous area of the Eastern United States. They overrun their neighbors, influence the government, buy and sell lands, arouse the fear and hostility of nearly everyone with whom they come in contact, and they come to symbolize all of the cruel and ruthless clans which are part of American history....

(The entire section is 1516 words.)

Places Discussed

(Critical Guide to Settings and Places in Literature)

Bellefleur Manor

Bellefleur Manor. Ancestral home of the Bellefleurs, a large American clan whose roots go back to the American Revolution. The family mansion sits on the shores of mythic Lake Noir near the Canadian border, a region similar to the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. Over the years, the family gains control over a vast part of the region. As its wealth and influence grow, it advertises its power by building the manor as a grand castle. However, the great structure is both castle and prison, for it binds all the Bellefleurs—living and dead, past and present, young and old—together forever. To be a Bellefleur is to be a captive in Bellefleur Manor and its region, forced to live with all manner of oddities brought on by a family tradition of intermarriage among cousins.

An eerie, coppery pink in color, the house is a huge structure with “innumerable walls and towers and turrets and minarets,” like “a castle composed in a feverish sleep.” By the late twentieth century, the castle has fallen into serious disrepair, along with the fortunes of the family. It is leaking, broken, and occupied by cats, rats, ghosts, a vampire, and a mass murderer. The house and family fortune are eventually rescued by Leah Bellefleur, but the manor is then destroyed by her husband, Gideon, in a violent act that kills most members of the clan, including Gideon and Leah themselves. However, their children are spared, and the manor’s destruction frees them from the...

(The entire section is 613 words.)

Literary Techniques

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

Bellefleur, along with A Bloodsmoor Romance (1982) and Mysteries of Winterthurn (1986), mark a distinct trend in Oates's...

(The entire section is 251 words.)

Ideas for Group Discussions

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

Readers of Bellefleur will need to suspend their disbelief and accept the supernatural, Gothic elements of the text. The novel is...

(The entire section is 233 words.)

Literary Precedents

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

The hybrid nature of Bellefleur makes it difficult to place its origins. Like most of Oates's work, it contains a vast network of...

(The entire section is 170 words.)

Related Titles

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

Bellefleur is part of a trilogy of Gothic romances: Bellefleur (1980), A Bloodsmoor Romance (1983), and Mysteries of...

(The entire section is 223 words.)


(Great Characters in Literature)

Bender, Eileen T. “History as Woman’s Game: ‘Bellefleur’ as Texte de Jouissance.” Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal 76, nos. 2/3 (Summer/Fall, 1993): 369-381. Asserts that “unshapely, fueled by waves of ungratified desire, Bellefleur is an audacious and revisionary model of historical fiction.”

Creighton, Joanne V. Joyce Carol Oates: Novels of the Middle Years. New York: Twayne, 1992. A critical analysis of Oates’s novels and essays published between 1977 and 1990. Calls Bellefleur Oates’s “most impressive reworking” of the nineteenth century gothic genre.

Cunningham, Valentine. “Counting up the Cost.” Times Literary Supplement, March 20, 1981, 303. Describes Bellefleur as bloated with details and suffused with “peculiarly American” horrors.

Nodelman, Perry. “The Sense of Unending: Joyce Carol Oates’s Bellefleur as an Experiment in Feminine Storytelling.” In Breaking the Sequence: Women’s Experimental Fiction, edited by Ellen G. Friedman and Miriam Fuchs. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989. Argues that Bellefleur, in its nonchronological approach to storytelling, is especially feminine in its experimentation because it transcends “the limitations of both conventional and conventionally innovative forms of fiction” represented by the traditional narrative form of conflict, crisis, and resolution.

Oates, Joyce Carol. (Woman) Writer: Occasions and Opportunities. 1st ed. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1988. A collection of Oates’s own musings on writing and the woman writer. Contains the preface to Bellefleur, in which Oates discusses the classification of the novel as gothic and reveals the one image from which the novel grew.