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While avid Conroy fans will recognize many of the thematic concerns of previous novels in Beach Music, including sibling relationships, parent and child relationships, family abuse, mental illness, class differences, politics, religion and faith, new themes add focus to this novel. War occupies much of the reader's attention through the discussion by the Jewish characters of the terrors of the Holocaust and through an overview of the effects of the Vietnam war on those who remained at home. No scenes or reminiscences from the fighting in Vietnam itself appear, but much attention focuses on the war protestors and on the older generation who greatly disapproved of such actions. Conroy attempts to balance the arguments for and against involvement in the war as characters disagree over the definition of "patriotism." The sub theme of peace takes on a double meaning as Jack's high school friends try to find a way to accept one another's actions by applying a new perspective thirty years following the war-protest events which severed some of their friendships.

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The related themes of faith and religion, frequently present in Southern writing, and always present in Conroy's novels, find revival through Conroy's consistent focus on the mysteries of Catholicism and also through an emphasis on the Jewish religion. Not only does Conroy's main figure struggle with his own faith, he must direct the religious training of his daughter whose mother was Jewish. Through shockingly vivid memories of the Holocaust, the Jewish characters cause the freedom of religion to assume new importance. The use of two priests as main figures and the dual consideration of Mary as simultaneously being the mother of Christ and a Jew adds a thoughtful dimension to the conflict the characters and readers might face. One Jewish character prays to a statue of Mary, thinking of her as a young Jewish girl.

Concerns for the environment are highlighted through Lucy McCall's passion for the preservation of the local loggerhead turtles. Her clashes with the wildlife authorities who label her intrusive methods illegal highlight the fact that man's laws do not always provide the guidance they should. Lucy is a revolutionary, evading her country's laws in order to preserve the higher good, just as Shyla, Jack's dead wife, revolted against what she saw as her country's mistaken involvement in an immoral war. The conservation concerns allow the alliance of grandmother and granddaughter as Leah inherits her grandmother's fiery compassion and commitment to saving the turtles.

While Conroy has featured mental illness in his past novels, especially in Prince of Tides, the character of John Hardin allows him to further experiment with the effects of the human mind on human actions. John Hardin's schizophrenia represents the loss of order, but also the achievement of a type of freedom through chaos. It is, however, a dangerous freedom, allowing Conroy again to emphasize the importance of the legal system, no matter how imperfect it may be. When John Hardin terrorizes his family and neighbors, the law must step in to help re-institutionalize him. But Conroy is not totally confident regarding the treatment of the mentally ill. His narrator stresses the fact that commitment to a mental institution is the easiest thing in the world to achieve in the South. Jack's college friend, Jordan, is effortlessly committed by his parents following his involvement in war protests, although he is not mentally ill. Suicide receives a glance through Shyla's self destruction, and various theories are proposed as to why one takes one's life. There's also a discussion between the members of Jack's circle in high school as to how they would commit suicide; Jordan's plan turns out to be quite prophetic. Any serious theories regarding the causes of suicide remain bound up in family relationships, and this theme remains one not...

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