Last Updated on September 5, 2023, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 1020
Bartholomew Fair is a comedy play in five acts, written by Ben Jonson, an English poet and playwright who lived during the Jacobean era. First performed at the Hope Theatre, on the south side of the River Thames, on October 31, 1614, the play would have been seen by King James I and Queen Anne—it was indeed performed at the Royal Court in a second production that same year.
Bartholomew Fair is a comic burlesque that pokes wicked and satiric fun at all of its characters. The centerpiece and main setting of the play is Bartholomew Fair itself, an enormously popular summer fair that took place yearly, from 1133 to 1855, outside of the ward of Aldersgate, London. At the time of Jonson's play, the fair lasted a fortnight and was internationally popular. While it was primarily known as a trading fair for cloth and other items, it was also a pleasure fair.
The fair is named after St. Bartholomew, one of the apostles of Jesus, who became a martyr after being flayed alive. His flayed skin is considered a precious religious artifact. Because of the nature of his death, he is the patron saint of tanners and tailors. Bartholomew Fair was at first primarily a trade fair for cloth—and tanners and tailors—which is how it got its name from the saint.
In this play, Jonson focuses primarily on the pleasures of the fair. After introducing most of the primary characters in their homes (preparing to go to the fair) in the first act, in the second act, Jonson introduces several of the pleasure booth denizens of the fair as they receive customers and go about their business. Most memorable is Ursula, a "pig-woman" (a seller of roasted pigs). Her booth is a centerpiece for the action of the play, as well as a lively crossroads for various nefarious characters (with colorful names like Whit, Edgworth, Nightingale, Haggise, and Bristle) who are engaged in criminal activities: fencing stolen goods, pimping for prostitutes, "cutpurses" and other rogues. Ursula describes herself as follows:
I am all fire and fat . . . I shall e'en melt away to the first woman, a rib, again, I am afraid. I do water the ground in knots as I go, like a great garden-pot; you may follow me by the S's I make.
In a way, Ursula can be seen to metaphorically represent the fair itself. She is like a carnival barker who oversees the primal, lusty proceedings of the fair, from the indulgence of eating greasy cooked pig meat to running interference and making use of the work of all the petty criminals who operate in the underbelly of the fair. Gluttony, debauchery, and drunkenness await all of the characters who are going to attend the fair on this day.
The Hope Theatre, where the play was performed, was built in 1613–1614, and this was one of the very first plays to be performed there. The man responsible for building the theater was Philip Henslowe, a well-known impresario of the time. Much of what we know about Renaissance theater of the day comes from a diary that Henslowe wrote. The new theater replaced a former bear-baiting arena. It was built to mimic and compete with other famous theaters of the day, such as the Swan and the Globe. The troop that performed the play was called (usually) Lady Elizabeth's Men, under the patronage of James I and Queen Anne.
In performance there, it seems likely that much of play, especially the scenes at the fair, were staged with "simultaneous loci": a series of canvas...
(This entire section contains 1020 words.)
booths were arranged on the stage to represent the totality of the fair all at once. This is born out by the evidence of a staging receipt that reads,
Canvas for Boothes and other necessaries for a play called Bartholomewe Fair.
The play itself frequently refers to the various "mansions," "booths," and "tents" where the fair takes place. The three main locales at the fair are Ursula's pig booth, the area where the public stocks are (where at least three of the main characters find themselves temporarily imprisoned for their raucous activities), and the large puppet booth of Lantern Leatherhead, where the characters watch and become engaged with a puppet show in act 5.
Since these various set areas were all placed on one stage together, very much in the fashion of older medieval plays that staged allegorical scenes for playgoers to walk through one by one, the play's staging would have been both very familiar to the audience and more fluid to stage. By all accounts, it was as lively to watch as the fair itself, with simultaneous actions happening in different booths all around the stage.
Indeed, the jumbled, colorful staging of the play at the Hope Theatre perfectly reflects the farcical, episodic plot of the play. The main characters (Cokes, Quarlous, Winwife, Wasp, Trouble-All and Zeal-of-the-Land Busy) dash about trying to win the attention and the affection of two women, Grace Wellborn and Dame Purecraft. The men take turns stealing marriage certificates from one another, deceiving one another, and generally engaging in acts of competition and bravado—they seem much more interested in one-upping each other than in actually getting married. As a result, the play's plot, such as it is, is frantic and chaotic. By the time we reach the end of the play and watch the Puritan Zeal-of-the-Land Busy having an argument about morality with one of the puppets from the puppet show, we know we are part of a merry, ridiculous world.
Jonson harshly satirizes the Puritan—Puritans are a frequent target of Jonson and of all Jacobean playwrights. The Puritans had been busy trying to shut down theaters and fairs in England for many years. Jonson, never afraid of controversy or of confronting his enemies, was openly hostile to the Puritans. He paints them as greedy, hypocritical half-wits in his plays. Zeal-of-the-Land Busy is horrified by Bartholomew Fair and its "profane feasts," and yet he manages to eat two whole pigs at Ursula's pig-booth in order to refute the charges of "Judaism" he says have been leveled at Puritans.