The Baron in the Trees

by Italo Calvino
Start Free Trial

Themes

Download PDF PDF Page Citation Cite Share Link Share

Last Updated on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 265

In late 18th-century Italy, the young baron Cosimo breaks with his family and leaves their home to live in the trees. He never comes down. Making his way through the treetops, he finds no need to set foot on the ground, and he ultimately leaves the trees by way of the sky.

See eNotes Ad-Free

Start your 48-hour free trial to get access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts.

Get 48 Hours Free Access

One central theme in this story is the conflict between the individual and society. The physical separation that Cosimo instigates stands for the emotional and intellectual alienation that he feels, most immediately from his family and more generally from society at large.

A related theme is the authenticity of nature versus the artifice of society. Although Italo Calvino was writing in the mid-20th century, he aligns his protagonist within the romantic philosophers of the French Enlightenment, especially Henri Rousseau, in supporting immediate sensory apprehension. Direct experience of the material world is presented as superior, in Cosimo’s view, to the mediated, distorted perceptions imposed by society, including formal schooling. The superiority of the senses over reason is not shown to be absolute, however. Cosimo manages to become quite worldly, educating himself from books and correspondence. The falsity of society is further expressed through the true nobility—as in Rousseau’s “noble savage”—of morally appropriate behavior, which is portrayed as superior to the social hierarchy symbolized by Cosimo’s noble family.

The overall form of the book, as an imaginative parable, expresses an underlying theme of Calvino’s belief in the inadequacy of realism to convey ideas accurately, as well as his move toward fantasy as a primary mode of literary expression.

Themes and Meanings

Download PDF PDF Page Citation Cite Share Link Share

Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 332

Trees are archetypal symbols of knowledge and of life, as noted by the Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung. Climbing the great variety of trees to be found in the vicinity of Ombrosa, trees which stretch, as Biaggio notes, as far as the border of Spain, is a means of perceiving the varied world at a comfortable distance. In other words, Cosimo remains in his world without being of it. Like the boy in Robert Frost’s poem “Birches,” Cosimo is “world-weary” and the trees provide a new perspective on familiar things.

Cosimo rightly senses the intellectual and political ferment of his times, and he realizes the essential stagnation of his family’s way of life. They are anchored to a huge and isolated estate, and pursue, even though with eccentric elan, wealth, titles, and mundane comforts. It is at first Cosimo’s natural rebelliousness, a reflection of the Age of Reason in which he lives, which causes him to vow never to descend from the trees. As he grows older, however, and begins to read avidly the authors of the exciting period in which he lives, especially Voltaire and Denis Diderot, he sees that life in the trees represents a symbolic as well as a literal escape from the everyday concerns which encumber the potentially rich business of simply living. Cosimo makes it a point of honor never to descend to the earth, to become entangled again with the sordid pursuits of those who live there.

Biaggio notes at the beginning of his narrative that he often played in the trees with his brother, though he was never as comfortable there as Cosimo. Biaggio is also aware, in later life, that his existence has never been as rich as that of Cosimo, primarily because he was unable to take the risk of living above the world’s concerns. Though he becomes Baron of Ombrosa because Cosimo resigns claim to the title, Biaggio sees his life as less successful in the truest sense.

See eNotes Ad-Free

Start your 48-hour free trial to get access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts.

Get 48 Hours Free Access
Previous

Summary

Next

Characters