What literary devices are used in "The Barefoot Boy" poem?

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Literary devices enhance the meaning of a work. Some literary devices in Whittier's "The Barefoot Boy" are as follows.

The poem creates a pleasing and predictable sense of rhythm through the use of rhyming couplets (pairs of lines that rhyme) and end rhyme. These include such end rhymes as "wall" and "fall," and "boy" and "toy."

The poem is also rich in imagery, description that uses the five senses of sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell. This imagery helps create idyllic and appealing childhood scenes. For example, we can see in our mind's eye the barefoot boy's lips, already red with good health, now redder because they are stained with the wild strawberries he has eaten:
With thy red lip, redder still
Kissed by strawberries on the hill ...
The poem personifies nature. Personification occurs when inanimate objects or animals are given human characteristics. Above, we note that the strawberries are personified, depicted as kissing the boy. This suggests that the taste of the strawberries is as sweet as a kiss. Another example of personification occurs when the speaker says that nature, as if it were human,
Talked with me from fall to fall.
Whittier uses metaphor, a comparison not using the words like or as, when he calls the barefoot boy a prince and adult men republicans. By this he means that the boy is royal and above the crowd, while adults are merely ordinary citizens:
Prince thou art,—the grown-up man
Only is republican.
The poet employs anaphora more that once. In anaphora, the same word or words are repeated at the beginning of successive lines, creating a sense of litany and rhythm. One example is the "of the wild" associated with the boy in the following lines:
Of the wild bee’s morning chase,
Of the wild-flower’s time and place ...
Other examples are the repeated Where and How at the beginnings of some lines. All of these devices reinforce the theme that childhood is a special time of closeness to nature that should be treasured.

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