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The Autobiography of Malcolm X

by Malcolm X, Alex Haley

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Chapter 19 Summary: 1965

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Last Updated March 22, 2023.

In 1964, Malcolm initiates a significant campaign to gather support for his new organization, conducting public gatherings and participating in numerous TV and radio shows. The American press maintains its criticism of Malcolm, labeling him "the angriest Negro in America."

Malcolm returns to the Middle East and Africa, meeting with various global and religious leaders. Some notable figures he privately meets include Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, Kenyan President Jomo Kenyatta, and Ugandan Prime Minister Dr. Milton Obote.

After returning to the United States, Malcolm perseveres in his battle against racism, rebranding his organization as the Organization of Afro-American Unity. He starts engaging with white Americans, sharing his newfound understanding that white individuals are not inherently wicked, but rather influenced by America's racist society to behave maliciously. This society fosters a mindset that unleashes the worst aspects of human nature. Malcolm suggests that genuine white allies form their own all-white groups to educate and convert other racist-thinking white individuals, and teach non-violence to them.

In the closing part of the chapter, Malcolm forebodingly anticipates his own demise, stating that societies often eliminate those who bring about change. He expresses that if his death can shed light on any significant truth to help eradicate the racial cancer plaguing America, then all credit belongs to Allah.

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Epilogue Summary by Alex Haley