Chapter 18 Summary: El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz

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Last Updated on May 17, 2018, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 411

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Kasem Gulek: member of the Turkish Parliament whom Malcolm meets on Mount Arafat

Sheikh Abdullah Eraif: mayor of Mecca

Muhammad Abdul Azziz Maged: Saudi Arabia’s Deputy Chief of Protocol, who serves as an interpreter for conversations between Malcolm and Prince Faisal

Professor Essien-Udom: author of Black Nationalism, and a professor at Ibadan University in Lagos, Nigeria

Larry Jackson: black Peace Corps’ volunteer whom Malcolm meets in Nigeria

Julian Mayfield: author and leader of Ghana’s group of African-American expatriates

Ana Livia: Mayfield’s wife

Dr. Kwame Nkrumah: President of Ghana

Shirley Graham Du Bois: writer and director of Ghanaian television; and widow of famous African-American revolutionary and scholar, Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois, who moved to Ghana late in his life.

Summary

Malcolm visits several Middle Eastern and African countries, and is introduced to the leaders, diplomats, and press corps from many nations. He meets the Saudi Arabian ruler, Prince Faisal, and Ghana’s President, Dr. Nkrumah. He is treated with honor and respect wherever he travels.

Upon his return to New York, Malcolm holds an impromptu press conference to explain his new ideology. Although the news media reports are somewhat negative, Malcolm begins, for the first time in his life, to garner support from both white people and African Americans. He is committed to developing political and social strategies that will unite all African Americans in his fight against racism.

Analysis

The tremendously positive response Malcolm receives during his visit to Africa serves as an affirmation of his spiritual awakening.

He returns to the United States in May 1964. It is the beginning of a long, hot summer of racial unrest in many of America’s major cities. Despite being cast by the news media as a “symbol” of the “revolt and violence” in the African-American community, Malcolm repudiates these charges. He launches into an attack of the American social and political systems that have denied “human rights” to African–Americans. He explains his new ideology, declaring, “My pilgrimage broadened my scope. It blessed me with a new insight. In two weeks in the Holy Land, I saw what I never had seen in thirty-nine years here in America. I saw all races, all colors—blue-eyed blonds to black-skinned Africans—in true brotherhood. In unity! Living as one!”

The reader marvels at this new Malcolm. Rather than merely spewing anger and hatred without taking action, Malcolm’s focus has drastically shifted; he is now determined to develop practical, workable solutions to America’s race problems.

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Chapter 17 Summary: Mecca

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Chapter 19 Summary: 1965