Who are the main characters in Arrow of God and their roles?

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The main characters in Arrow of God are Ezeulu, the chief priest and protagonist who defends Igbo traditions; Nwaka, who opposes Ezeulu and urges war; Captain T.K. Winterbottom, the British District Officer who intervenes in conflicts; Goodcountry, the head missionary; and Oduche, Ezeulu’s son sent to learn from the missionaries. Ezeulu's resistance to colonial and missionary influences ultimately leads to his downfall and the community’s shift towards Christianity.

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Chinua Achebe’s Arrow of God details the coming of the British colonists to Nigeria as well as the cultural and political events that followed. Ezeulu, who is the Ulu’s chief priest and the protagonist, is the custodian of the people’s rituals and traditions. To signify the start of a fresh month, he beats the ogene and feeds on a sacred yam. The flashback at the start of the story establishes the novel’s structure and explains the conflict between Nwaka and Ezeulu. Essentially, the cause of the disagreement is a land dispute between two neighboring villages, Okperi and Umuaro. Akukalia, a representative from Umuaro village, is killed by the Okperi people as he attempts to announce a war between the Okperi and the Umuaro, which triggers an open conflict. It takes the efforts of the District Officer named Captain T.K. Winterbottom to stop the fight. Goodcountry is the head of the white missionaries. Ezeulu sends one of his sons, Oduche, to the mission place so that he can learn from the white man’s purported wisdom.

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Ezeulu, the head priest in the villages of Umuaro, is the protagonist of the novel, which takes place in the Igbo areas of Kenya. Ezeulu considers himself the spokesman of the god Ulu, but Ezeulu's power is threatened by Nwaka, another character who urges the villagers to fight against neighboring Okperi. Captain T.K. Winterbottom, the British District Officer of the area, steps in to stop the war, and Winterbottom is impressed by Ezeulu's efforts to speak against the war. However, Ezeulu's efforts in part cause the commissioner to rule in favor of Okperi, to the disappointment of the people of Umuaro. 

Christian missionaries arrive in Umuaro to begin to convert the local people. Ezeulu sends his son, Oduche, to the missionaries to learn about the new religion, and Oduche winds up converting. Later, Ezeulu is asked by Winterbottom to be part of the British system of indirect rule, but he refuses and is jailed. After he is released, convinced that Ulu is not in favor of the yam harvest, Ezeulu refuses to bless the harvest. The yams rot, causing starvation. As a result of being starved, one of Ezeulu's sons (Obika) dies, and the village begins to convert to Christianity. As Achebe writes of the people of Umuaro, "Their god had taken sides with them against his headstrong and ambitious priest." Ezeulu plays the role of unsuccessfully defending Igbo tradition against the onslaught of Christianity, and Winterbottom unwittingly hastens the decline of tradition by inviting Ezeulu to be part of indirect rule and then jailing him. 

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The central character of Arrow of God is Ezeulu, the chief priest of Umuaro.  He has three wives and many sons, and has a domineering personality. He is blamed for many of the village's problems which have come as a result of colonialization.

Winterbottom is a British officer who strongly believes in his mission of colonialization.  He serves as a foil to Ezeulu. Despite his beliefs, he is a sensitive and practical man.

Clark is Winterbottom's assistant and overseer, and is unscrupulous and abusive in his dealings with the natives.

Okbuefi Akuebue is Ezeulu's more level-headed best friend.

Okuata is Ezeulu's first wife, who has died.  Matefi is now his senior wife, and Ugoye is his younger one.

Odogo is Ezeulu's oldest son, and Amoge is his wife.

Obika is Ezeulu's second son, and his "heir apparent"; Okuata is his wife.  Obika has a rash personality, drinks heavily, and gets in fights.  Obika dies of a fever before he can take over his father's position, an event which contributes to Ezeulu's eventual downfall.

Oduche is a lesser son of Ezeulu who has been sent away to school.

Akueke is a daughter of Ezeulu who is beaten by her husband.  Her husband is humilated and almost killed by Obika in retaliation.

A complete and detailed description of characters can be found at the enotes link below.

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