For The Arkadians, Alexander draws on modern archeological and anthropological theories about the development of the Ancient Greek culture, as well as on Ancient Greek mythology. Originally, so modern theory says, early Greece, long before the Golden Age or the time of Homer (who wrote The Illyiad and The Odyssey), was inhabited by a pastoral matriarchal culture whose chief deities were female and generally were associated with specific territories. For instance, the goddess that would become Athena would have been associated with the territory of Athens, perhaps even specifically with the hills which the Parthenon crowns. The culture that we now think of as the Ancient Greek one migrated into Greece from the north, bringing with it a patriarchal society whose chief gods were male. The mixture of the two cultures resulted in the new one becoming dominant, but nonetheless incorporating in their own mythology the chief deities of the original culture. Thus the early goddess who became Athena was turned into a deity subservient to the male Zeus.
Alexander places his tale in the middle of the period in which these contending cultures were interacting, with the older culture reluctantly giving way to the newer one. The older culture is dominated by women: goddesses, prophetesses, healers, and arbiters. The newer culture's gods are not as well-developed in the novel as are the gods of the older culture, who are represented by the powerful Bear. The newer culture is controlled by men, some of whom are suspicious of women with power. They are even fearful of females such as the Woman- Who-Talks-to-Snakes (the "pythoness") and the Lady of Wild Things. The complex cultural underpinnings of the novel give it considerable depth. Throughout the novel, as a plot of high adventure unfolds, the two cultures first come into violent conflict and then eventually reach compromises. By the end of the novel, Alexander has...
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