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Last Updated on September 12, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 535

Roman Authorities

The Roman authorities are in fact among the addressees of Tertullian’s message, but he also makes references to former emperors in addition to other nobles and statesmen. These include Marcus Aemilius, Tiberius, Nero, Domician, Marcus Aurelius, and others. The author mentions them with reference to ancient decrees that are ignored by the pagans themselves.

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Pagan Gods

Tertullian alludes to Roman history to prove that Roman gods had originally been men who were later deified. Moreover, he argues that both the gods’ stories and the rites that are performed to honor them are bloody and cruel, something which is falsely ascribed to the Christians’ ceremonies:

Previous to Saturn there is with you no god: from him is the beginning of all, even of more powerful and better known divinity . . . Saturn, then, as far as literature teaches, neither Diodorus the Greek, nor Thallus, nor Cassius Severus, nor Cornelius Nepos, nor any other writer on this particular kind of antiquities, has proclaimed to be anything but a man . . . even Jupiter himself was both a man and sprung from a man; and that thereafter the whole swarm of his progeny were both mortal and like their source.

The Christian God

Tertullian sets what he sees as the fictitious characters of the Roman pantheon against the historical character of Christian faith, which has its roots in ancient Judaism in worshipping one true God:

The object of our worship is One God, who, through the Word by which He commanded, through the Reason by which He ordered, through the Power by which He was able, framed out of nothing the whole mass of this universe with all its equipment of elements, bodies, and spirits, for the enhancing of His own majesty… He is invisible, although He may be seen: He is incomprehensible to touch, yet may be made present through grace: He is inestimable, yet may be estimated by the human senses: He is therefore the True and the Great God.

Christians and Pagans

The Christians are presented in the Apology as innocent and misunderstood victims of pagan...

(The entire section contains 535 words.)

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