1. Who were the triumvirs who formed the second triumvirate of Rome following the death of Julius Caesar?
2. Why did Mark Antony consider himself at least partially justified in taking an extended “vacation” in Egypt?
3. The Soothsayer in this play performs what function?
4. Mark Antony tends to hold Octavius in contempt. Why? How do we know that he holds such feelings toward Octavius?
5. Why was Octavius so anxious for Mark Antony to return to Rome?
6. Demetrius and Philo perform what extremely important function in the first scene?
7. The Soothsayer carefully absolves himself from causing or even affecting the outcome of events. Why?
8. In Scene 2, Cleopatra says of Antony, “A Roman thought had struck him.” In this context, what is a “Roman thought”?
9. Several lines later the messenger says, “The nature of bad news infects the teller.” What does he mean?
10. How does Antony learn of Fulvia’s death?
1. The three triumvirs of the second triumvirate were Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Mark Antony, and Octavius (later called Caesar).
2. In the crucial conflict at Philippi between the triumvirate and the conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius, Mark Antony led almost all the fighting, whereas Lepidus and Octavius did relatively little for the cause.
3. The Soothsayer...
(The entire section is 405 words.)
1. What was Cleopatra’s attitude toward Fulvia?
2. Antony says, “I am sorry to give breathing to my purpose.” What was his purpose, and what did he mean by giving “breathing” to it?
3. Why was he sorry to have to do that?
4. Cleopatra asks Charmian to “Cut my lace.” To what was she referring?
5. Why would she want her “lace” cut?
6. Cleopatra, discussing their relationship with Antony, says, “So Fulvia told me.” What did Fulvia tell her, and how?
7. What did Antony mean when he said to Cleopatra, “You’ll heat my blood”?
8. Cleopatra says to Antony, “Upon your sword/Sit laurel victory” To what was she referring?
9. Antony refers to Sextus Pompeius as “rich in his father’s honour” To what was he referring and in what manner?
10. Cleopatra asks Antony, “Where be the sacred vials thou shouldst fill/with sorrowful water?” To what was she referring?
1. Cleopatra could not have helped being jealous of Fulvia. To hide her jealously, she taunted Mark Antony about his unfaithfulness to his wife Fulvia and suggested that he would also be unfaithful to her. Her feelings of insecurity caused her to worry about Antony’s faithfulness to her.
2. Antony’s purpose was to return immediately to Rome. “Giving breathing” to it meant telling his beloved...
(The entire section is 429 words.)
1. Which of the three triumvirs was considered so weak as to be almost totally ineffective?
2. What passage in the first act is our first clue to his weakness and ineffectiveness?
3. At what point in the first act, other than the prophecy of the Soothsayer, do we find foreshadowing of the coming conflict between Mark Antony and Octavius (Caesar)?
4. Cleopatra’s feelings toward Mark Antony tend to vary throughout the play. Although she tries to convince him to receive the delegation from Octavius, she finally approves his return to Rome and strongly upbraids her companions for what she considers a derogatory comment about him. What was the comment?
5. Lepidus says, “His faults in him seem as the spots of heaven,/More fiery by night’s blackness.” About whom does he say this, and what does he mean?
6. Octavius (Caesar) says, in commenting on Antony’s sojourn in Egypt, “Let’s grant it is not/Amiss to tumble on the bed of Ptolemy.” Why would Octavius be so gracious as to comment so about one with whom he is angry?
7. Cleopatra asks Charmian for a drink of mandragora. Why would she desire such a drink?
8. Octavius says to Lepidus, “Pompey/Thrives in our idleness.” What did he mean?
9. Menecrates and Menas are called “famous pirates.” Later in the play they become relatively important characters. Who are they and in what kind...
(The entire section is 590 words.)
1. Why did Mark Antony return to Rome from Egypt?
2. What reasons did he give Octavius for not returning sooner?
3. Name two major accusations Octavius brought against Antony.
4. Why was Lepidus anxious to prevent any antagonism between Octavius and Antony from developing?
5. From which character(s), other than Enobarbus, did Lepidus receive the most help in allaying the controversy between the two men?
6. For what comment was Enobarbus severely rebuked by Antony, and why?
7. Why did Agrippa want Octavia to marry Antony?
8. What was Antony’s comment about Fulvia when Octavius commented derogatorily on her actions?
9. In the opening Scene of Act II, Menas says: “Know, worthy Pompey/That what they [the great gods] do delay they do not deny.” What does Menas mean and what argument does he use to explain why the great gods act as they do?
10. Referring to Silvius, Pompey says, “He dreams.” Why does Pompey think Silvius is dreaming instead of accurately reporting the situation?
1. Octavius and Lepidus, faced with warfare against Sextus Pompeius (Pompey), thought their chances of victory would be greatly increased if Antony were there to command the troops.
2. Antony said that his presence in Rome was not really required earlier than when he actually returned, that Cleo¬patra’s...
(The entire section is 504 words.)
1. The Soothsayer reappears here. What advice does he give to Antony?
2. Before Ventidius enters, Antony utters a short soliloquy in which he makes two important statements. What are they?
3. In Scene 4, Lepidus says to Agrippa and Mecenas, “Trouble yourselves no further.” What, in fact, is he telling these two men?
4. In the opening lines of Scene 5, to what does Cleopatra (humorously) compare Antony?
5. What message does the messenger bring to Cleopatra?
6. Why is Cleopatra afraid to hear the message?
7. With what does Cleopatra threaten the messenger?
8. How does Charmian react to the exchange between the queen and the messenger?
9. What does Cleopatra do after the messenger has exited the stage?
10. Who was the Gorgon Cleopatra mentions near the end of Scene 5?
1. The Soothsayer urges Antony to return to Egypt and to stay away from Octavius (Caesar); he tells Antony that Octavius will win over him whenever a contest develops between them.
2. The two statements are that Ventidius must go to Parthia to fight Pacorus (to avenge the murder of Marcus Crassus, a member of the first triumvirate) and that he (Antony) intends to follow the Soothsayer’s advice and return more or less permanently to Egypt and Cleopatra.
3. Lepidus is telling them that they need not accompany him to the meeting with Pompey in Sicily—that he will make the journey by himself.
4. Cleopatra compares Antony to fish that she has caught.
5. The messenger from Rome tells Cleopatra that Antony has married Octavia.
6. Cleopatra was afraid that the messenger had brought news of Antony’s death.
7. Cleopatra threatens to have the messenger “whipped with wire, and stewed in brine,/Smarting in ling’ring pickle!” Then she threatens to stab him with a knife.
8. Charmian tries to restrain the queen from actions that are totally out of order. Suddenly she realizes that she cannot control Antony as she has been able to control the members of her court.
9. Cleopatra threatens to faint, sends Alexas to learn all he can about Octavia and report back to her, and asks Charmian to lead her to her chamber.
10. The Gorgon, known in legend as Medusa, had her head covered with snakes instead of normal hair. Whoever looked upon her immediately turned to stone.
1. Did Menas exhibit strong confidence in Pompey’s actions in accepting the triumvirate’s offer of peace?
2. In the opening line of Scene 6, Pompey says, “Your hostages I have, and so have you mine.” What are the hostages and why would Pompey and the triumvirate have them?
3. Explain why Antony, in Scene 6, tells Pompey that “Thou canst not fear us.”
4. When Menas and Enobarbus, alone on the stage after the others have exited, discuss the situation, of what do they accuse each other?
5. To whom was Octavia married before she married Mark Antony?
6. What is Enobarbus’ opinion of the marriage between Antony and Octavia?
7. Antony says to Octavius (Caesar), “They take the flow o’th’Nile/By certain scales i’th’ Pyramid.” What is he talking about?
8. Antony says, “These quicksands, Lepidus,/Keep off them, for you sink.” Of what “quicksands” is Antony warning Lepidus?
9. Near the end of Scene 6, a most unusual conversation occurs between Pompey and Enobarbus. What are they discussing?
10. What incident indicates Pompey’s desire to become the ruler of the world?
1. Menas thought Pompey was making a great mistake by acceding to the peace offer the triumvirs had made.
2. To prevent either party from gaining an advantage over the other while they are discussing...
(The entire section is 440 words.)
1. Why was Antony so anxious to conquer Parthia and its king, Orodes?
2. What particular function does Silius perform in this scene?
3. What did Silius want Ventidius to do?
4. Why did Ventidius refuse to do it?
5. What did Ventidius plan to do immediately after his victory?
6. What was the most pressing message Ventidius intended to send to Antony, other than informing him of the victory, and why was that message of supreme importance?
7. Ventidius says, “Caesar and Antony have ever won/More in their officer than person.” What did he mean?
8. Who was Sossius?
9. Silius says, “Thou hast, Ventidius,...
(The entire section is 405 words.)
1.Who are Agrippa and Enobarbus discussing in Scene 2?
2. Why does Lepidus praise both Octavius and Antony?
3. Why does Octavius weep when Antony and Octavia leave?
4. Where are Antony and Octavia going?
5. Whom does Octavius express his distrust of?
6. What mission does Cleopatra give her messenger?
7. Why is Cleopatra concerned about Octavia?
8. In Scene 4, Why is Antony angry at Octavius?
9. Why does Octavia wish to go to Rome?
10. Why does Antony grant Octavia’s wish?
1. Enobarbus and Agrippa are discussing Lepidus.
2. Lepidus praises both...
(The entire section is 176 words.)
1. What is learned in Scene 5 about what happened to Lepidus?
2. Why was Octavius angry with Octavia when she returned to Rome?
3. Octavius blamed Antony for this lack of courtesy to Octavia, but was it Antony’s fault?
4. Why does Octavius tell Octavia to turn against her husband?
5. Why does Enobarbus, in Scene 7, attempt to get Cleopatra to return from Actium (in Greece) to Egypt?
6. It appears that Octavius is looking for ways to justify his defeat and capture of Antony. Why would he want to do that?
7. Why does Antony decide to fight Octavius (Caesar) at sea?
8. Camidius says, “His whole action grows/Not in the...
(The entire section is 419 words.)
1. What instructions did Octavius give his general, Towrus?
2. Why did he decide to so instruct Towrus?
3. What is the first indication that Antony has lost this battle?
4. Why did Antony leave his men and go in search of Cleopatra?
5. What decision does Camidius, Antony’s commander, make?
6. What instructions does Antony give after the battle is lost?
7. What sad comment does Antony make about himself?
8. Does Antony blame Cleopatra for his defeat?
9. How does she reply to his comments? Are the replies justified?
10. How does Antony react to her comments?
(The entire section is 345 words.)
1. Whom does Antony send as an emissary to Octavius (Caesar)? Why?
2. What response does Octavius give the emissary?
3. When Antony challenges Octavius to a sword duel to settle the matter between them, does he believe Octavius will accept the challenge? Why?
4. What is Enobarbus’ opinion of Antony’s challenge to Octavius?
5. What action does Enobarbus contemplate as a response to Antony’s challenge to Octavius?
6. Why does Antony order the servants to whip Thidias?
7. Did Thidias ask for mercy during the whipping?
8. Who was the “Caesarion” that Cleopatra mentions in her response to Antony’s charge that she...
(The entire section is 373 words.)
1. At the end of Scene 1, Octavius (Caesar) exclaims, “Poor Antony!” Why?
2. Two interchanges of “asides” between Enobarbus and Cleopatra occur close together in Scene 2. About what is Cleopatra worried?
3. What does Antony mean by the line, “Scant not my cups.”
4. For what does Enobarbus mildly rebuke his friend and ¬general?
5. How does Antony reply to this rebuke?
6. To what or whom does the term “my hearts” near the end of Scene 2 refer?
7. In Scene 3, what do the soldiers hear that surprises them?
8. Why were the soldiers on guard that night?
9. They attribute what they hear as an evil...
(The entire section is 310 words.)
1. Antony was successful in the early fighting described in this act, whereas he had failed miserably in the fighting described in Act III. Why was Antony so successful in Act IV, when he was so unsuccessful in Act III?
2. Antony says to Cleopatra, “Thou art/The armourer of my heart.” Why does he mildly and lovingly reprove the queen with that remark?
3. How does Cleopatra feel as she utters the last three lines of Scene 4?
4. What loving act does Antony perform in Scene 5 before the great battle begins?
5. How does Shakespeare’s portrayal of this act exhibit his feelings about Antony?
6. Octavius (Caesar), in Scene 6, performs an ugly...
(The entire section is 521 words.)
1. What is the meaning of Agrippa’s comment at the opening of Scene 7?
2. How does Scarrus react to the existing situation?
3. What does Scarrus mean by saying, “I’ll halt after”?
4. What did Antony mean by referring to “Hectors” at the beginning of Scene 8?
5. What does Cleopatra promise Scarrus for his bravery and valiant behavior?
6. In Scene 9, what is Enobarbus’ attitude?
7. Why did Enobarbus die?
8. Octavius’ soldiers overhear Enobarbus’ soliloquy just before his death. What is their reaction to what he is saying?
9. What does the sentry mean by saying, “He is of note”?
(The entire section is 372 words.)
1. The later fighting in Act IV was disastrous to Antony for two highly important reasons. What were they?
2. In Scene 10, what does Antony mean when he says, “I would they’d fight i’th’fire or i’th’air”?
3. At the beginning of Scene 12, Scarrus says, “Swallows have built/In Cleopatra’s sails their nests.” What does he mean?
4. What is the meaning of Scarrus’ comment about the “augurers”?
5. Antony, seeing Cleopatra’s ships once again give up the fight, but this time defect to Octavius (Caesar), calls Cleopatra a “Triple-turned whore.” To what is he referring?
6. Antony tells Scarrus to “Bid them all fly.”...
(The entire section is 539 words.)
1. What advice does Charmian give Cleopatra after Antony has threatened to kill the queen?
2. What is Cleopatra’s reaction to Antony’s threat?
3. Why does Cleopatra retire to her monument (tomb)? What does this action indicate about her character?
4. Who brings the news of Cleopatra’s “death” to Antony?
5. What is Antony’s reply to the emissary?
6. What is the essence of Antony’s soliloquy after Eros has left the stage temporarily?
7. Why does Mark Antony decide to die at that particular time?
8. How does Eros avoid the bitterly unpleasant task of killing his beloved Mark Antony when he had promised years...
(The entire section is 358 words.)
1. Why does Cleopatra refuse to come down from her monument to kiss the dying Antony one last time? Is this an indication of her character or of her true feelings about Antony?
2. What does Cleopatra do instead of emerging from her monument?
3. Cleopatra says, “If knife, drugs, serpents, have/Edge, sting, or operation, I am safe.” What does she mean?
4. Cleopatra says, a few lines later, “Had I great Juno’s power,/The strong-winged Mercury should fetch thee up/And set thee by Jove’s side.” About whom is she talking?
5. Whom does Antony, before he dies, tell the queen to trust?
6. What advice does he give the queen at that time?...
(The entire section is 451 words.)
1. What, if any, was the international significance of Antony’s death?
2. Why was Octavius (Caesar) anxious to prevent Cleopatra’s death?
3. What did Dolabella do for Cleopatra that no other of Octavius’ officers or soldiers did for her?
4. What was Octavius’ approach to Cleopatra after he learned that Antony was dead? Does this approach shed any light on his character, which Shakespeare developed throughout the play? If so, what?
5. What was Cleopatra’s reaction to Octavius and his emissaries?
6. Did Octavius intend to kill Cleopatra later?
7. What was the threat Procleius made to Cleopatra to disuade her from committing...
(The entire section is 423 words.)