Antonio Machado

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Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 112

Among the most renowned Spanish poets of the twentieth century, Antonio Machado is the most prominent poet of the Generation of ’98 , the literary movement that developed from the political, cultural, and social crises affecting Spain that had culminated in the loss of its last colonial territories in 1898. Machado and other writers, including the philosopher and novelist Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo and playwright Ramón María del Valle-Inclán, were united by their search for cultural identity and their reevaluation of Spain’s place in the world after its loss of global dominance. Although he is best known as a poet, he also wrote essays, literary criticism, and other prose works.


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Antonio Machado was elected a member of the Real Academia Española de la Lengua in 1927. He was honored with several posthumous international congresses, colloquia, and dedications. Machado organized the Homenaje a Valle-Inclán in 1932. He was also honored as Son of Soria for his service to the region.


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Cobb, Carl W. Antonio Machado. New York: Twayne, 1971. An introductory biography and critical study of Machado by an expert in Spanish poets and the translation of Spanish poetry into English. Includes a bibliography of Machado’s work.

Hutman, Norma Louise. Machado: A Dialogue with Time, Nature as an Expression of Temporality in the Poetry of Antonio Machado. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1969. A critical analysis of selected poems by Machado. Includes a bibliography of Machado’s poetry.

Krogh, Kevin. The Landscape Poetry of Antonio Machado: A Dialogical Study of “Campos de Castilla.” Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 2001. Krogh analyzes Machado’s description of the countryside of Castile, Spain. Includes bibliographical references and indexes.

Ribbans, Geoffrey. Antonio Machado, 1875-1939: Poetry and Integrity. London: Hispanic and Luso Brazilian Council, 1975. A transcription of a lecture dealing with Machado’s life and poetry. Ribbans has written extensively on various figures in Spanish literature and has edited collections of Machado’s poetry.

Romero Ferrer, Antonio. Los hermanos Machado y el teatro, 1926-1932. Seville, Spain: Diputación de Sevilla, 1996. Criticism and interpretation of the Machado plays. In Spanish.

Round, Nicholas Grenville. Poetry and Otherness in Hardy and Machado. London: Queen Mary and Westfield College, 1993. A critical study comparing the poetic works of Thomas Hardy and Antonio Machado. Includes bibliographical references.

Walters, D. Gareth. Estelas en el mar: Essays on the Poetry of Antonio Machado. London: Grant and Cutler, 1992. This collection of essays from the Glasgow Colloquium focuses on technical aspects of specific poems. Studies such as “Questioning the Rules: Concepts of Deviance and Conformism in Campos de Castilla,” by Robin Warner, reevaluate the works’ meanings in their historical contexts. Other studies analyzing neo-mysticism, the nostalgic vision of Canciones a Guiomar, and the poetry of cultural memory offer fresh approaches to contemporary classics.

Whiston, James. Antonio Machado’s Writings and the Spanish Civil War. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press, 1996. A study of the influence on Machado’s writing of Spanish Civil War propaganda and the resulting schism between the poet and his brother.

Young, Howard Thomas. The Victorious Expression: A Study of Four Contemporary Spanish Poets, Miguel de Unamuno, Antonio Machado, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Federico García Lorca. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964. An introductory critical study of four Spanish poets. Includes bibliographical references.

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