Antonio Gramsci Additional Biography

Bibliography

Adamson, Walter L. Hegemony and Revolution: A Study of Antonio Gramsci’s Political and Cultural Theory. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. Traces the formation of Gramsci’s thought within the context of Western Marxism and the political and intellectual horizons of his time.

Bellamy, Richard, and Darrow Schecter. Gramsci and the Italian State. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1993. Emphasizes the political ramifications of Gramsci’s writings, focusing on the specific historical context of Gramsci’s role in contemporary political debates in Italy. Includes a biographical outline.

Cammett, John M. Antonio Gramsci and the Origins of Italian Communism. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1967. An excellent book on Gramsci, this is the text that introduced his work to an English audience. Cammett treats Gramsci’s life up to his arrest in great detail and concludes with a general overview of the principal concerns in Prison Notebooks.

Clark, Martin. Antonio Gramsci and the Revolution That Failed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1977. This book’s concerns are the postwar revolutionary years, the rise of workers’ councils, and the period of factory occupation. It highlights Gramsci’s role and the theoretical insights developed between 1919 and 1920.

Coben, Diana. Radical Heroes: Gramsci, Freire, and the Politics of Adult Education. New York: Garland, 1998. A look at the political aspects of adult education and socialism.

Femia, Joseph. Gramsci’s Political Thought. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1981. One of the most thorough discussions of Gramsci’s work, which develops in some detail his ideas on hegemony, organic intellectuals, and the role of the modern political party.

Martin, James. Gramsci’s Political Analysis: A Critical Introduction. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. An important dissection of Gramsci’s political thought and his contribution to political science.

Sassoon, Anne Showstack, ed. Approaches to Gramsci. London: Writers and Readers, 1982. A collection of essays by leading scholars from many different disciplines on Gramsci, his life and work, his commitment to revolution, and the cultural applications of his theories.

Williams, Gwyn A. Proletarian Order: Antonio Gramsci, Factory Councils, and the Origins of Italian Communism, 1911-1921. London: Pluto Press, 1975. An excellent English-language treatment of the formative years in Gramsci’s political development, 1915-1920. Williams locates the stimulus to Gramsci’s later thinking in the revolutionary two years in Turin that followed World War I.

Biography

Antonio Gramsci (GRAHM-shee), the founder of the Italian Communist Party, served as its foremost theoretician and provided it with active leadership until his imprisonment by Benito Mussolini in 1926. He was one of seven children, the fourth son, of Francesco Gramsci and Giusippina Marcias. The family was of moderate means until 1897, when Francesco Gramsci received a five-year jail sentence for having improperly administered his job as clerk in the registrar’s office in Ghilarza. This arrest caused serious financial problems, and young Gramsci, having just completed elementary school, was forced by circumstances to work for two years to help support his family. He returned to school in 1905, first in Santa Lussurgui and later in Cagliari. Recipient of a scholarship, he enrolled in 1911 at the University of Turin, where Luigi Einaudi was one of his teachers and Palmiro Togliatti a fellow student. Gramsci’s studies emphasized linguistics, moral philosophy, and modern history.

Gramsci first came in contact with the Socialist Party in Turin. He joined the local section (to which he was elected secretary in 1917), made his first contribution to the Socialist paper Il grido del popolo in 1914, and began writing for Avanti in 1916. In 1919 Gramsci, along with three friends—Togliatti, Angelo Tasca, and Umberto Terracini—founded the journal L’ordine nuovo (the new order). The journal, begun as a weekly and after 1921 converted to a daily, was the organ of the Turin workers’ councils and discussed a variety of timely topics. In 1920 Gramsci participated in a Socialist occupation of factories that spread throughout Italy. His dissatisfaction with the Socialists’ inability to stage a successful revolution, for which he believed the time was ripe, led him to create and lead a Communist faction within the Socialist Party. The group split in 1921, resulting in the establishment of the Italian Communist Party with Gramsci serving as a member of the central committee. Always obsessed with leading the masses into revolutionary action, Gramsci clashed with the party’s general secretary, Amadio Bordiga, who emphasized purity of doctrine. Bordiga viewed the Russian Revolution as an exception to Marxist principles, which he thought could apply easily in the West. Gramsci believed the opposite, seeing the situation in Central and Western Europe as complicated by a more complex development of capitalism...

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Biography

(Survey of World Philosophers)

Article abstract: Gramsci, an active Italian revolutionary, was one of the first European communists to establish the theoretical foundations for a Western Marxism free of reliance on the Soviet Union. Imprisoned by Italy’s Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, he developed a new method of social analysis with his writings on culture and hegemony.

Early Life

Antonio Gramsci was born in Ales, a small agricultural village in Sardinia, on January 23, 1891. His family lived modestly, supported by a father who was a clerk in the Italian state bureaucracy. The family moved frequently between several villages during much of Gramsci’s youth. At the age of four, Gramsci severely injured his...

(The entire section is 2158 words.)