Where are pathos, logos, and ethos found in Animal Farm?

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Pathos is an emotional appeal meant to persuade audiences by influencing their emotions. In the opening chapter of the novella, Old Major utilizes pathos during his moving speech in order to appeal to the animals's emotions. He exercises pathos by telling the animals,

Let us face it: our lives are miserable, laborious, and short. We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are slaughtered with hideous cruelty. No animal in England knows the meaning of happiness or leisure after he is a year old. No animal in England is free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth (Orwell, 4).

Old Major appeals the animals's emotions as they contemplate the depressing nature of their miserable lives. Old Major portrays their existence as meaningless and depressing, which subconsciously influences them to be open to his solution. They become sad and emotionally disturbed as they reflect on their current situation under Mr. Jones's tyranny. Because of the speech, they wish to change the trajectory of their lives.

Ethos is an ethical appeal, which is meant to convince the audience that the speaker is a credible source and an authority on a given subject. In chapter seven, Squealer announces that they have discovered documents that reveal Snowball was in a league with Mr. Jones and acted as his secret agent during the Battle of the Cowshed. Squealer states that Snowball fought against them and revises history by telling the animals that Snowball was dedicated to the demise of Animal Farm. When Boxer disagrees with Squealer's assessment of the battle, Squealer utilizes ethos by saying,

Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon...has stated categorically−categorically, comrade−that Snowball was Jones's agent from the very beginning−yes, and from long before the Rebellion was ever thought of. (Orwell, 26).

Squealer's argument is considered an example of ethos because he appeals to Napoleon's authority. Napoleon is believed to be a knowledgeable expert on the subject, and many animals view him in high regard. By attaching Napoleon's name to any claim, Squealer solidifies his argument. He knows that the animals will accept it with Napoleon involved.

Logos is an appeal to logic meant to persuade audiences using reason. Squealer exercises logos when he reads statistics aloud in order to prove that the farm is working efficiently and conditions are better than they were in Jones's days. In chapter eight, Orwell writes,

On Sunday mornings Squealer, holding down a long strip of paper with his trotter, would read out to them lists of figures proving that the production of every class of foodstuff had increased by two hundred percent, three hundred percent, or five hundred percent, as the case might be" (29).

By manipulating statistics, Squealer is able to fool the animals into believing that the farm's economy is thriving under Napoleon. It builds up Napoleon as a competent, selfless leader. Numbers and statistics are founded on logic and reason, which is why Squealer's method is considered an example of ethos.

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Ethos, pathos, and logos are all forms of rhetoric with the intention of persuasion.

Ethos is an appeal to a person's (or, in this case, animal's) sense of ethics. The speaker tries to solidify his position as a credible source or as an authority on the subject. A good example of ethos in Animal Farm is in Old Major's speech at the beginning of the novel:

"I have had a long life, I have had much time for thought as I lay alone in my stall, and I think I may say that I understand the nature of life on this earth as well as any animal now living.”

Here, Old Major establishes himself as an expert on life because of his experience and wisdom. He is credible because he has experienced so much. Therefore, he is an authority on life.

Pathos is an appeal to a person's emotions. In this form of rhetoric, the speaker tries to appeal to emotions or uses a convincing story to build credibility. This can be found in this excerpt:

“At the graveside, Snowball made a little speech, emphasizing the need for all animals to be ready to die for Animal Farm if need be.”

Here, Snowball is seen appealing to the animals' sense of loyalty, duty, and honor, trying to rally their spirits by uniting them under the cause of Animal Farm. This sense of emotional camaraderie is pathos.

And logos is an appeal to a person's sense of logic. In this form of rhetoric, it is common to find data: facts, statistics, graphs, and percentages. An example of this is in Chapter 8:

"On Sunday mornings Squealer, holding down a long strip of paper with his trotter, would read out to the animals lists or figures proving that the production of every class of foodstuff had increased by two hundred percent, three hundred percent, or five hundred percent, as the case might be.”
In this example, the other animals have some sense that the rhetorical appeal isn't quite right. It seems that maybe they are working harder than they were before. But when they are faced with the data that Squealer provides, they don't question it.
When used effectively and in combination (as in Old Major's speech), the three forms of rhetoric have the power to really bolster the credibility of the speaker.
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Pathos, ethos and logos are the three pillars of persuasion. It is difficult to be persuasive in writing or speech without using all three.

Pathos is the appeal to emotions, ethos is the appeal to credibility or authority (do you believe the writer's or speaker's claims?) and logos is the appeal to logic, usually in the form of facts or statistics.

Although Animal Farm is a fable about animals, it uses all three forms of persuasion.

A chief example of pathos in this novel is Boxer, the strong, dedicated horse who is a true believer in the animal revolution and works harder than everyone else his whole life in honest, whole-hearted support of the dream. It is difficult not to be moved emotionally when he is betrayed in old age: rather than the retirement he has been promised, he is sold to the glue factory.

Orwell achieves ethos by making his animal characters behave like real, believable human beings and by basing his book on events in Stalinist Russia, such as show trials, which most people of his generation would have been familiar with. The book is also believable because we know some humans trick and betray others, so we can believe the pigs would act badly.

Orwell works hard to introduce logos into his tale, for example, by showing in some detail how the animals have to adapt human tools to their own four-legged state. This creates a world that accords with the laws of physics and thus feels real to the reader. 

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