In Animal Farm, how does Old Major emphasize his idea of Animalism?

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Because of his age and influence, Old Major's words command respect among the other animals. When he preaches his Utopian ideals, they listen and are convinced by his eloquence and the simplicity of his ideals.

"I do not think, comrades, that I shall be with you for many months longer, and before I die, I feel it my duty to pass on to you such wisdom as I have acquired. I have had a long life, I have had much time for thought..."
(Orwell, Animal Farm,

Old Major uses three appeals: an appeal to wisdom -- he is old, and therefore he is wise; an appeal to emotion -- he will die soon and so his words are valuable; an appeal to fear -- if the animals do not revolt, they will continue to live in slavery. By composing his thoughts in a way that places the animals as "good" versus the humans as "bad," he sets out his ideas in a way that can be simply understood -- "All animals are equal" -- and easily implemented -- "Everyone should work for the common good." Unfortunately, the other animals fail to see how the pigs use their intellect to avoid work, and so Old Major's ideals are lost.

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Old Major brings out his idea of Animalism in a couple of ways.  The first is to collect the animals in detailing his dream.  In presenting Animalism in a dream to the other animals, it brings to light how their world is in fundamental need of changing.  This leads into another way of how Old Major emphasize his ideas.  He stresses to the animals that the current system is one in which the Animals are being exploited at the hands of humans.  This world is one in which the Animals are constantly under siege from the humans, exploited and used in so far as their work capacity and production will continue.  For example, Old Major draws the direct comparison that Boxer will be used and respected by the humans until he is no longer able to work.  At this point, Old Major argues that he will be sent to the "Knacker's."  In contrasting his dream with how bad things are for the animals, Animalism is emphasized in another manner.  The singing of the song "Beasts of England" at the end of the chapter is yet another way in which Old Major emphasizes his idea of Animalism, in song, in a manner that enables the animals to fully embrace the idea of their own condition being seen as something secondary to what can be.

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How was the idea of Animalism described by Old Major in Animal Farm?

In Animal Farm, Animalism is not developed until after Old Major's death. His speech, however, given a few days before his death, is instrumental in defining many of the principles of Animalism, and this is evident in a number of ways.

First of all, Old Major develops the idea that Man is the enemy. We see this through the following lines from his speech:

Because nearly the whole of the produce from our labour is stolen from us by human beings. There, comrades, is the answer to all our problems. It is summed up in single word - Man. Man is the only real enemy we have.

Once the animals realise that Man is the cause of their problems, they use Animalism to protect themselves accordingly. This is best represented in the first of the animal's commandments: "Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy."

Secondly, Old Major convinces the animals to unite in the struggle against Man. He develops the principle of equality between all animals, from pigs and dogs to mice and rabbits, and urges them to work together to overcome Man. We see the influence of this idea in the second and seventh principles of Animalism: "'Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend,"  and "All animals are equal." In fact, Old Major utters these phrases to the animals and they are copied in their exact form. 

Finally, Old Major identifies a number of human vices which he urges the animals to avoid, at all cost. These include living in a house, drinking alcohol and sleeping in a bed. For Old Major, animals who seek to resemble Man will become tyrannical and selfish, and therefore these habits must never become commonplace. Again, the animals are profoundly influenced by these ideas and adopt them directly into the seven commandments, specifically in the second, third and fourth.

(Please see the reference link provided for a full-text of the commandments).

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