Gardner, Averil. George Orwell. Boston: Twayne, 1987. Gives information on Orwell at the time of writing Animal Farm and a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of meaning and symbols as they apply to Russian history. Includes some criticism that Animal Farm received at its publication.
Hammond, J. R. A George Orwell Companion. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982. Features pictures of Orwell spanning his career and gives an extended reference to characters and events of Animal Farm as they compare to historical Russia. Considers the evolution of Orwellian philosophy through his novels and essays.
Hollis, Christopher. A Study of George Orwell: The Man and His Works, 1956.
Hunter, Lynette. George Orwell: The Search for a Voice, 1984.
Kalechofsky, Roberta. George Orwell. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1973. Has an extended section on Animal Farm about the corruption of the seven commandments of animalism and compares the themes of Animal Farm as similar to those of Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Lee, Robert A. Orwell’s Fiction, 1969.
Meyers, Jeffrey. A Reader’s Guide to George Orwell. Totowa, N.J.: Littlefield, Adams, 1977. Gives a detailed account of the political allegory of Animal Farm, specifically with Russian history.
Norris, Christopher, ed. Inside the Myth: Orwell, Views from the Left, 1984.
Williams, Raymond. George Orwell. New York: Viking Press, 1971. Includes several quotes from Orwell and the criticism he received for Animal Farm. Also explains the difficulties Orwell went through in trying to find a publisher.
Bibliography and Further Reading
Katharine Byrne, "Not All Books Are Created Equal: Orwell & His Animals at Fifty," in Commonweal, Vol. CXXin, No. 10, May 17, 1996, pp. 14, 16.
Jenni Calder, Chronicles of Conscience: A Study of George Orwell and Arthur Koestler, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1968.
Arthur C. Danto, "Animal Farm at 50," in New York Times Book Review, April 14, 1996, p. 35
Adam de Hegedus, review of Animal Farm, in Commonweal, Vol. XLIV, No. 22, September 13, 1946, pp. 528-30.
Stephen J. Greenblatt, Three Modern Satirists: Waugh, Orwell, and Huxley, Yale University Press, 1965.
Christopher Hollis, A Study of George Orwell: The Man and His Works, Henry Regnery Co. , 1956, pp. 140-53.
Arthur Koestler, "A Rebel's Progress To George Orwell's Death," in Observer, January 29, 1950, reprinted in his The Trail of the Dinosaur and Other Essays, Macmillan, 1955, pp. 102-5.
Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Gross, Miriam, Editor. The World of George Orwell. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971.
C. S. Lewis, "George Orwell," in Time and Tide, January 8, 1955.
Jeffrey Meyers, in his A Reader's Guide to George Orwell, Thames & Hudson, 1975.
Isaac Rosenfeld, review of Animal Farm, in Nation, September 7, 1946, p. 373.
Orwell, George. Animal Farm. A Signet Classic. New York: Penguin Books, 1971.
Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., "Mr. Orwell and the Communists," in New York Times Book Review, August 25, 1946, pp. 1, 28.
Stephen Sedley, "An Immodest Proposal Animal Farm" in Inside the Myth: Orwell, Views from the Left, edited by Christopher Noras, Lawrence and Wishart, 1984, pp. 155-62.
George Soule, "Orwell's Fables," in New Republic, Vol. 115, No. 9, September 2, 1946, pp. 266-67 .
Edmund Wilson, review of Animal Farm, in New Yorker, Vol. XXII, No. 30, September 7, 1946, p. 97.
George Woodcock, in his The Crystal Spirit: A Study of George Orwell, Little, Brown, 1966.
Rees, Richard. George Orwell Fugitive from the Camp of Victory. Chicago: Southern Illinois University Press, 1962.
Schapiro, Leonard. The Russian Revolutions of 1917: The Origins of Modern Communism. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1984.
For Further Study
Sant Singh Bal, in his George Orwell: The Ethical Imagination, Arnold-Heinnemann, 1981.
Bal explores the universality of Orwell's novel and compares it to Darkness at Noon by Arthur Koestler.
"Beastly," in Economist, August 12, 1995, p 71.
Short review praising the novel on the fiftieth anniversary of its publication.
Northrop Frye, "Turning New Leaves," in The Canadian Forum , Vol. XXVI, No. 311,...
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