At a Glance

  • Mr. Jones is a farmer driven off of Manor Farm by his animals. He represents Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire.

  • Old Major is the prize-winning boar who inspires the revolt and the following doctrine called Animalism. He represents both Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.

  • Snowball is a boar and is co-ruler of Animal Farm alongside Napoleon after the revolt. Snowball is a vivacious leader, but he is attacked and sent into exile by Napoleon. He represents Leon Trotsky.

  • Napoleon is a boar and is co-ruler with Snowball after the revolt. He exiles Snowball from Animal Farm out of jealousy and fear. Napoleon represents Joseph Stalin, the Soviet Union’s dictatorial leader who exiled Leon Trotsky and took power after Vladimir Lenin's death.

  • Squealer is an eloquent pig who spreads Napoleon's propaganda. He represents Stalin's chief propagandist, Vyacheslav Molotov.

  • Boxer is a hard-working cart horse. He represents the faithful working class. When Boxer is injured and can no longer work, Napoleon sends him to a horse slaughterer and glue factory.

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In George Orwell's Animal Farm, Napoleon is a boar who takes part in the revolt against Mr. Jones. Afterwards, he co-leads the farm animals with Snowball. Napoleon is aggressive, militaristic, and manipulative. Although he is not great at public speaking, he is able to get his own way. In the novel's allegory of the Russian Revolution, Napoleon represents Soviet politician Joseph Stalin. (Read extended character analysis of Napoleon.)


Snowball is a boar on Manor Farm who helps in the revolt against Mr. Jones and in leading the farm animals afterwards. He is vivacious, quick, and inventive. Although he possesses these qualities, Snowball has less “depth of character” than Napoleon. In the story's allegory of the Russian Revolution, Snowball represents Leon Trotsky, who was in power alongside Joseph Stalin after Vladimir Lenin passed away. Snowball helps to expand on Old Major’s teachings alongside Squealer and Napoleon. (Read extended character analysis of Snowball.)


In Orwell's allegory for the Russian Revolution, Boxer represents the Soviet Union's working class. Boxer is a large working horse. Boxer is not clever, but he is able to make up for this lack with a steady character and strong work ethic. His main mantra is “I will work harder.” He is considered one of the pigs’ most faithful followers. (Read extended character analysis of Boxer.)


In Animal Farm, by George Orwell, Squealer is a "porker," or one of the fatter pigs, living on the farm. He has twinkling eyes, is great at public speaking, and is popular with the other animals. Squealer is said to be very persuasive; he is able to “turn black into white,” with his debate skills. In the story's allegory of the Russian Revolution, Squealer represents Vyacheslav Molotov, who was Joseph Stalin's loyal supporter and a chief figure in the Communist government. (Read extended character analysis of Squealer.)

Old Major

Old Major is the oldest pig on the farm. He is also the prize pig of Mr. Jones’s and is greatly respected by the other animals at Manor Farm. In the novel's allegory of the Russian Revolution, Old Major likely represents the political economist Karl Marx, whose Communist Manifesto advocated for a revolution from the working class, and Vladimir Lenin, one of the main revolutionary leaders in the communist uprising. (Read extended character analysis of Old Major.)

Minor Characters

In addition to the main characters listed above, the following characters also feature in Animal Farm and have important roles in the allegory.


Benjamin the donkey is cynical and bitter. He doesn’t laugh and rarely speaks. However, he is close friends with Boxer. When the animals take over the farm, Benjamin doesn’t change in personality. He is still slow, cynical, and obstinate. Benjamin is also unwilling to give any opinion on the rebellion.

However, Benjamin shows himself to be very intelligent. For...

(The entire section is 2,389 words.)