Chapter III Summary and Analysis
The animals work hard to complete the harvest. The pigs direct the work of the other animals instead of doing any work themselves, and when it is finished, it is the largest harvest the farm has ever seen. For the rest of the summer, the animals continue to work. Boxer undoubtedly works the hardest, even adopting “I will work harder!” as his personal motto. The animals take great pride in their ability to provide for themselves, and the subsequent increase in efficiency and the absence of the humans allow for more food and leisure time. The animals do not work on Sundays. Instead, they ritually hoist a flag that Snowball created and then meet to submit resolutions, which are debated and voted upon. While the animals understand how to vote, only the pigs are smart enough to think of resolutions to submit. Through these debates, it soon becomes clear that Snowball and Napoleon are always in disagreement with one another.
The pigs use the harness room as a headquarters and study skills like carpentry and blacksmithing. Snowball takes great pains to organize the animals into committees and set up reading and writing classes. Though the committees are a failure, soon nearly every animal on the farm possesses some level of literacy. When it becomes apparent that the least intelligent animals cannot commit the seven commandments to heart, Snowball simplifies them even further into the maxim “Four legs good, two legs bad,” which is then inscribed above the commandments on the wall. Napoleon takes no interest in the committees, saying that the focus should be on the education of the young. When both Jessie and Bluebell give birth to litters of puppies, Napoleon takes the puppies away to a secluded loft. Soon, the other animals forget about the puppies entirely.
It is eventually revealed that the milk is being mixed into the pigs’ mash every day. Additionally, the pigs announce that all of the windfall apples shall be given to them, not split equally among the animals. When the animals begin to grumble, Squealer explains that the pigs are not acting out of selfishness and even claims that most of them don’t like the taste of milk and apples. He says that the pigs eat them anyway because they need the nutrients to nourish their minds and ensure the continued success of the farm. Squealer claims that if the pigs fall ill,...
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