(Critical Edition of Young Adult Fiction)

The opening chapter of Clara Ingram Judson’s Andrew Carnegie introduces young Andrew (or Andra, as he was known by his family) and the childhood home in Dunfermline, Scotland, that was always dear to him. The following thirteen chapters present, in chronological order, the events in Carnegie’s life. Chapter titles such as “Telegraph Boy” and “Iron” summarize the emphasis of the period.

When machine weaving ended the profitability of the hand weaving trade. William and Margaret Carnegie, with their two sons, Andrew and Tom, immigrated to the United States in search of work. Andrew Carnegie arrived in 1848 at the age of twelve with a meager education but a desire to work hard in his new homeland.

From bobbin boy in a cotton mill to engine boy in a factory to telegraph messenger, Andrew Carnegie impressed his employers with his abilities and his enthusiasm. Railroad superintendent Thomas A. Scott promoted him at the Pennsylvania Railroad and offered the young man an opportunity to buy his first stock. Carnegie followed this investment with others in a sleeping car company, an oil company, and several iron companies. With his own businesses doing well, Carnegie was able to leave the railroad in 1865. His personal philosophy of managing money included paying off debts early, not living extravagantly, and having money available to meet needs. When Carnegie decided that the steel industry was an investment opportunity of a lifetime, he...

(The entire section is 486 words.)