Other literary forms
André Gide (zheed) began his literary career with a number of prose works that defy conventional classification; among them are poetic works in prose, such as Les Cahiers d’André Walter (1891; The Notebooks of André Walter, 1968) and Les Nourritures terrestres (1897; Fruits of the Earth, 1949), and the stories Paludes (1895; Marshlands, 1953) and Le Prométhée mal enchaîné (1899; Prometheus Misbound, 1953). Although closely related to his development as a novelist, such works are perhaps best described as lyric essays discussing the nature and limits of human freedom. Gide is known also for his Journal (1939-1950, 1954; The Journals of André Gide, 1889-1949, 1947-1951); several autobiographical volumes, including Si le grain ne meurt (1926; If It Die . . . , 1935) and Et nunc manet in te (1947, 1951; Madeleine, 1952); and the travelogues Voyage au Congo (1927; Travels in the Congo, 1929) and Retour de l’U.R.S.S. (1936; Return from the U.S.S.R., 1937). As early as 1899, Gide also applied his talents to the writing of plays; the products of these efforts are rarely performed but were published in English in the collection My Theater (1952) one year after the author’s death at the age of eighty-one.