Born Everett LeRoi Jones in Newark, New Jersey, in 1934, Imamu Amiri Baraka was raised in the urban middle-class environment against which he has since rebelled. His father, Coyette (Coyt) LeRoi, was a postal employee, and his mother, Anna Lois Russ Jones, a social worker. Educated in the Newark public schools, Baraka began cartooning in junior high school and writing science fiction for the school publication in high school before graduating at the age of sixteen.
Although he had once considered the ministry as a career, Baraka accepted a science scholarship to Rutgers University. His experiences at Rutgers for one year, at Howard University where he did not complete his studies, and as an enlisted gunner in the Air Force (from 1954 to 1957) catalyzed his awareness of what he believed to be the illness of assimilation—that is, of black acquiescence and adaptation to white oppression. Consequently, after his discharge from the armed services, Baraka sought the supportive countercultural atmosphere of Greenwich Village in New York.
There, Baraka founded Totem Press and co-founded the avant-garde magazine Yugen with Hettie Cohen, a Jewish woman who would be his wife for seven years, from 1958 to 1965. In those years, he achieved recognition as a jazz and blues critic, worked as a poetry and small-press magazine editor, and took graduate courses in philosophy and comparative literature at Columbia University. Under the influence of such bohemian experimental poets as Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, and William Carlos Williams (as well as Ezra Pound), Baraka established his early poetic voice with his first volume of poetry, Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note (1961). This collection reflected his resistance to the debilitating effects of white stereotyping and black assimilation, suggesting his eventual movement to a...
(The entire section is 762 words.)
Baraka is a crucial figure in American literature. His indomitable insistence that the oppressed be freed and that art be an active factor in the process has led him to the creation of versatile forms of expression in poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction prose. A leading black aesthetician, he consistently extends his art into action. A critical concern, however, has been that he fails to reach his intended audience, the black masses. As his experimentation continues, his writing grows ever more esoteric and may become accessible to smaller and smaller audiences.
(The entire section is 91 words.)
Born Everett LeRoi Jones, Imamu Amiri Baraka was born and raised in Newark, New Jersey, and has lived for most of his life in or near New York City, where many of his plays were first staged. He served in the U.S. Air Force from 1954 to 1957, mainly in Puerto Rico. He attended Rutgers and Howard universities and did graduate work at the New School for Social Research and Columbia University. He has been a faculty member at a number of American universities, including the New School (1962 to 1964) and Yale University (1977-1978). In 1980, Baraka accepted a teaching position at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Baraka was married twice and has several children.
(The entire section is 116 words.)
Everett LeRoi Jones, who took the name Amiri Baraka in 1967, was born into a black middle-class family in Newark, New Jersey. An excellent student whose parents encouraged his intellectual interests, Jones was graduated from Howard University of Washington, D.C., in 1954, at the age of nineteen. After spending two years in the United States Air Force, primarily in Puerto Rico, he moved to Greenwich Village, where he embarked on his literary career in 1957. During the early stage of his career, Jones associated closely with numerous white avant-garde poets, including Robert Creeley, Allen Ginsberg, Robert Duncan, and Diane di Prima, and, with di Prima, he founded the American Theatre for Poets in 1961. He married Hettie Cohen, a white woman with whom he edited the magazine Yugen from 1958 to 1963, and he established himself as an important young poet, critic, and editor. Among the many magazines to which he contributed was the jazz journal Downbeat, where he first developed the interest in African American musical culture that helped shape his theatrical “rituals.” The political interests that were to dominate Jones’s later work were unmistakably present as early as 1960, when he toured Cuba with a group of black intellectuals. This experience sparked his perception of the United States as a corrupt bourgeois society and seems particularly significant in relation to his subsequent socialist stance. Jones’s growing political interest influenced his first produced plays, including the Obie Award-winning Dutchman, which anticipated the first major transformation of Jones’s life.
Separating from Hettie Cohen and severing ties with his white associates, Jones moved from Greenwich Village...
(The entire section is 707 words.)